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PKU Diet - Topic Overview

A low-protein diet is the main treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). This is because people who have PKU lack an enzyme to properly process the amino acid phenylalanine, a part of protein.

Phenylalanine is present in all protein foods and in some nonprotein foods, such as soda pop and artificial sweeteners. PKU diets typically do not contain high-protein foods such as:

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  • Meat, eggs, and fish.
  • Bread, noodles, and wheat products.
  • Nuts, peas, and beans (and products made from these foods).
  • Milk and cheese.
  • Chocolate.

Read food labels carefully. All foods that contain phenylalanine should have "contains phenylalanine" on the label.

The PKU diet may result in certain nutritional deficiencies that can slow a person's growth. It is important that everyone with PKU sees a specialist for nutritional counseling. This is especially important for those considering pregnancy.

Teach siblings, grandparents, caregivers, teachers, and friends about the dietary restrictions. They need to understand that symptoms of the disease will develop if the child does not follow the diet.

As your child grows, following the diet may become more difficult. Some children may rebel against the diet, especially during the teen years, as they gain more independence and are influenced by peers. Give your child some control by letting him or her choose what to eat from a variety of low-phenylalanine foods. Continue to stress the importance of staying with the diet. Explain how straying from the diet can cause both immediate and long-term consequences, such as lower intelligence.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: November 14, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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