American Psychiatric Association (2000). Stuttering. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev., pp. 67–69. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Guitar B, Conture EG (2007). The Child Who Stutters: To the Pediatrician, revised 4th ed. (Publication No. 23).
Memphis: Stuttering Foundation of America. Also available online:
Paul R (2007). Disorders of communication. In A
Martin, FR Volkmar, eds., Lewis's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4th ed., pp. 418–430. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and
Prasse JE, Kikano GE (2008). Stuttering: An overview.
American Family Physician, 77(9): 1271–1276.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA (2007). Communication disorders. In Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry, Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 10th ed., pp. 1175–1190. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Ursano AM, et al. (2008). Communication disorders
section of Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or
adolescence. In RE Hales et al., eds., American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th ed., pp. 874–877. Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Publishing.
In this article
This information is produced and provided by the National
Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National
Institute via the Internet web site at http://
.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
September 09, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this