Abnormalities of the urinary tract, including
kidney stones and other
urinary obstructions. Structural or functional
problems that limit the kidneys' or the bladder's ability to eliminate urine
properly can increase the risk of UTIs. These problems may be present at birth
or may develop soon after.
Infrequent urination, incomplete
emptying of the bladder, or constipation. These patterns are common during
toilet training and make it easier for bacteria to
build up in the urine.
An uncircumcised penis. The foreskin can
trap bacteria, which can then enter the
urinary tract and cause infection.
Catheterization, which is used
in a hospital when a child is unable to urinate on his or her own. Bacteria can
catheter and start an infection.
UTIs. The risk for future infections increases with each additional
History of UTI or the backward flow of urine from the
bladder into the kidneys (vesicoureteral reflux) in a parent or
Infants and young children who have UTIs often have
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).