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Tetanus - Topic Overview

What is tetanus?

Tetanus is a disease caused by a bacterial infection. The bacteria make a toxin, or poison, that causes severe muscle spasms. Tetanus can be very dangerous, but you can get a shot to prevent it. Tetanus is also called "lockjaw" because muscle spasms in your jaw make it hard to open your mouth. Tetanus also causes seizures and makes it hard for you to swallow or breathe.

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In the United States, most people have had shots to prevent tetanus, so the disease is relatively rare. People who have never been immunized or haven't had a booster in the last 10 years are more likely to get tetanus. This includes people who recently moved to the U.S. from countries where tetanus shots are rare.

How can you prevent tetanus?

You can prevent tetanus by getting all of your recommended immunizations (shots). There are three different combination immunizations that include a vaccine for tetanus.

If you never had tetanus shots as a child, or if you're not sure if you had them, you'll need to get 3 tetanus shots in about a 1-year time span. After that, 1 booster shot every 10 years will work for you.

Get a tetanus shot as soon as possible if you have a dirty cut or wound and 5 or more years have passed since your last tetanus shot. Some people may need tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) for a wound that is at high risk for tetanus. The immunoglobulin is usually only needed if you have not (or do not know whether you have) completed the tetanus shot series.

What causes tetanus?

The bacteria that cause tetanus are called Clostridium tetani. They are usually found in dirt and soil, most often in areas with animal waste such as farms and ranches. These bacteria typically enter the body through a wound, cut, or splinter. They can also enter the body through an unclean injection, such as when a person injects an illegal drug.

The bacteria grow best when they are not around oxygen. The deeper and narrower the wound, the less oxygen there is around it, so tetanus is more likely. For example, the bacteria can thrive in a puncture wound from a dirty nail. The dirtier the wound, the higher the risk of getting tetanus. But tetanus can also grow in a clean wound.

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WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: August 31, 2012
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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