Gene Behind Serious Statin Risk
Muscle Condition From Cholesterol Drugs Linked to Gene Variant
Aug. 20, 2008 -- A variant gene causes more than 60% of cases of a serious
side effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs
-- muscle pain and weakness.
Statin drugs -- Lipitor, Pravachol, Crestor, Lescol,
Mevacor, and Zocor -- are considered remarkably safe. But one in every 10,000
patients per year develops drug-related muscle trouble. Very rarely, this
myopathy leads to muscle breakdown and fatal kidney failure.
Oxford University researcher Rory Collins, MB, and the SEARCH Collaborative
Group performed genome-wide scans of heart attack survivors taking
high doses (80 mg/day) of Zocor in a large-scale clinical trial. They compared
the 98 patients who developed myopathy with 98 patients who did not.
"We provide compelling evidence that at least one common variant in the
SLCO1B1 gene substantially alters the risk of [Zocor]-induced myopathy,"
Collins and colleagues conclude. "These findings are likely to apply to
other statins because myopathy is a class effect, and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms
affect the blood levels of several statins."
The gene variant is relatively common. It alters the function of a gene that
regulates drug uptake in the liver. People who inherit two copies of the gene
had a 17-fold increased risk of muscle problems when taking high doses of
Zocor. Those with just a single copy had a 4.5-fold increased risk.
Collins and colleagues suggest that before starting high-dose statin
treatment, patients may benefit from genetic testing to see whether they are at
risk of side effects.
Yusuke Nakamura, MD, PhD, director of the Human Genome Center at the
University of Tokyo, agrees.
In an editorial accompanying the Collins team's report in the Aug. 21 issue
of the New England Journal of Medicine, Nakamura suggests that avoiding
high doses of statins in people who carry the gene could reduce statin-related
muscle problems by 60%.