High-Dose Statins Linked to Acute Kidney Damage
Large study doesn't prove connection, but experts say patients should ask doctors about concerns
By Denise Mann
TUESDAY, March 19 (HealthDay News) -- People who take high doses of popular cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins may be more likely to develop kidney problems, a new study suggests.
Specifically, those participants who took higher doses of statins were 34 percent more likely to be hospitalized for acute kidney injury during the first 120 days of treatment, compared to their counterparts who were taking lower doses. This risk remained elevated two years after starting treatment. The findings appeared online March 19 in the journal BMJ.
Statins are widely prescribed to lower blood cholesterol levels, and can be very effective. They do, however, confer their share of risks, most notably liver damage and muscle pain or weakness. Doctors currently recommend that people take a liver enzyme test before or shortly after they begin taking statins. The issue of kidney damage as seen in the current study, however, is relatively new.
Canadian researchers analyzed the health records from more than 2 million people aged 40 or older with or without kidney disease who were also taking statins. High-dose statins included rosuvastatin (Crestor) at doses of 10 milligrams (mg) or higher, atorvastatin (Lipitor) at doses of 20 mg or higher and simvastatin (Zocor) at doses of 40 mg. All other statin doses were considered low dose.
People with kidney disease were not at higher risk for acute kidney problems independent of their statin use, the study found.
To illustrate the effect of statin dosage, about 1,700 people without kidney disease would need to be treated with a high-dose statin rather than a low-dose version to cause one additional hospitalization for kidney injury, the researchers said.
"The lowest dose of statin required to achieve therapeutic goals should be prescribed," said study author Colin Dormuth, an epidemiologist at the University of British Columbia, in Vancouver.
Exactly how -- or even if -- statins cause kidney injury is not known. "The elevated risk in patients using high-potency statins could be related to an increased risk of [muscle damage]," Dormuth said. In addition, statins have been shown to block the production of coenzyme Q10 (a substance in the body that helps break down food), which could theoretically lead to kidney injury, he said.