This document updates previously posted information for parents about infant
feeding and novel H1N1 flu (swine flu). It now more clearly addresses
parents who are formula feeding as well as breastfeeding, suggests that parents
sick with novel H1N1 flu (swine flu) find someone who is not sick to feed the
baby, and provides more detailed strategies for breastfeeding mothers to
maintain breastfeeding throughout the course of infection. This document is
based on current knowledge of the novel...
Chronic reflux laryngitis.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) produces acidic
secretions that can damage the mucous lining of the larynx. When reflux occurs
frequently, tissue may swell or thicken, and sometimes open sores (ulcers)
develop. Excess mucus, throat clearing, a choking feeling, and periodic speech
and voice problems can result.
Vocal cord lesions. Ulcers or
growths (such as cysts, polyps, or nodules) on the
vocal cords can affect the voice. These lesions may be
caused by improper use of the voice over an extended period, chronic viral
infection (such as sinusitis), smoking, cancer, or long-term exposure to
allergens or irritants.
dysphonia. This is a voice disorder that causes hoarseness, neck pain, and poor
voice range and quality. It is a result of habitual and improper use of muscles
around the vocal cords. The behavior often begins as a means to compensate for
strain on other voice box muscles during a viral infection or from
Neurological voice disorders.
Parkinson's disease and similar disorders can result
in a problem controlling volume and speech rhythm. The voice may become soft,
and speech can be rapid and slurred.
Age-related muscular changes
of the vocal cords. Weakness or degeneration of muscle around the vocal cords
can result in a thin voice, with decreased range, and occasional loss of
Structural immobility of the vocal cords. Damage to one or
both vocal cords, such as a traumatic injury or nerve problems, can prevent
them from working properly. Difficulty speaking may result.
of the larynx (laryngeal cancer).
Vocal cord paralysis.
Paralysis may be caused by problems in the neck, the
thyroid gland, or even in the chest.
Diagnosing and treating these conditions helps prevent
recurring symptoms or complications. Common treatments include voice training,
medicines, injections of fat or collagen, or surgery. Laryngeal cancer may
require more treatments, such as
Primary Medical Reviewer
Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer
Donald R. Mintz, MD - Otolaryngology
December 28, 2010
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
December 28, 2010
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
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