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    Colorectal Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

    1. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Rectal Cancer

      Treatment decisions should be made with reference to the TNM classification system,[1] rather than the older Dukes or the Modified Astler-Coller classification schema. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and a National Cancer Institute-sponsored panel recommended that at least 12 lymph nodes be examined in patients with colon and rectal cancer to confirm the absence of nodal involvement by the tumor.[2,3,4] This recommendation takes into consideration that the number of lymph nodes examined is a reflection of both the aggressiveness of lymphovascular mesenteric dissection at the time of surgical resection and the pathologic identification of nodes in the specimen. Retrospective studies, such as Intergroup trial INT-0089 [EST-2288], have demonstrated that the number of lymph nodes examined in colon and rectal surgery may be associated with patient outcome.[5,6,7,8]The staging system does not apply to the following histologies:Sarcoma. (See the

    2. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 19 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Evidence of BenefitRevised text about five sigmoidoscopy screening randomized controlled trials to state that there was an overall 28% relative reduction in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, an 18% relative reduction in CRC incidence, and a 33% relative reduction in the incidence of left-sided CRC.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    3. Colorectal Cancer - Stage II Colon Cancer Treatment

      Standard Treatment Options for Stage II Colon CancerSurgeryStandard treatment options for stage II colon cancer include the following:Wide surgical resection and anastomosis.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer was examined in a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial (NCCTG-934653, now closed) comparing laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) to open colectomy.Three-year recurrence rates and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were similar in the two groups. (Refer to the Primary Surgical Therapy section in the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.)The quality-of-life component of this trial has been published and minimal short-term quality-of-life benefits with LAC were reported.[4][Level of evidence: 1iiC]Treatment Options Under Clinical EvaluationAdjuvant chemotherapyThe potential value of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon cancer remains

    4. Colon Polyps - Stage IV and Recurrent Colon Cancer Treatment

      Stage IV colon cancer denotes distant metastatic disease. Treatment of recurrent colon cancer depends on the sites of recurrent disease demonstrable by physical examination and/or radiographic studies. In addition to standard radiographic procedures, radioimmunoscintography may add clinical information that may affect management.[1] Such approaches have not led to improvements in long-term outcome measures such as survival.Treatment Options for Stage IV and Recurrent Colon CancerTreatment options for stage IV and recurrent colon cancer include the following:Surgical resection of locally recurrent cancer.Surgical resection and anastomosis or bypass of obstructing or bleeding primary lesions in selected metastatic cases.Resection of liver metastases in selected metastatic patients (5-year cure rate for resection of solitary or combination metastases exceeds 20%) or ablation in selected

    5. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification and Pathology of Rectal Cancer

      The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the colon and rectum include the following:[1]Epithelial TumorsAdenomaTubular.Villous.Tubulovillous.Serrated.Intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia) associated with chronic inflammatory diseasesLow-grade glandular intraepithelial neoplasia.High-grade glandular intraepithelial neoplasia.CarcinomaAdenocarcinoma.Mucinous adenocarcinoma.Signet-ring cell carcinoma.Small cell carcinoma.Adenosquamous carcinoma.Medullary carcinoma.Undifferentiated carcinoma.Carcinoid (well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm)Enterochromaffin (EC)-cell, serotonin-producing neoplasm.L-cell, glucagon-like peptide and pancreatic polypeptide/peptide YY (PYY)-producing tumor.Others.Mixed carcinoma-adenocarcinomaOthers.Nonepithelial TumorsLipoma.Leiomyoma.Gastrointestinal stromal tumor.Leiomyosarcoma.Angiosarcoma.Kaposi sarcoma.Melanoma.Others.Malignant lymphomasMarginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.Mantle cell

    6. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Colon Cancer

      Histologic types of colon cancer include the following:Adenocarcinoma (most colon cancers).Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma.Signet ring adenocarcinoma.Scirrhous tumors.Neuroendocrine.[1] Tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation typically have a poorer prognosis than pure adenocarcinoma variants.References: Saclarides TJ, Szeluga D, Staren ED: Neuroendocrine cancers of the colon and rectum. Results of a ten-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 37 (7): 635-42, 1994.

    7. Colon Polyps - Stage III Colon Cancer Treatment

      Stage III colon cancer denotes lymph node involvement. Studies have indicated that the number of lymph nodes involved affects prognosis; patients with one to three involved nodes have a significantly better survival than those with four or more involved nodes.Standard Treatment Options for Stage III Colon CancerStandard treatment options for stage III colon cancer include the following:Surgery.Adjuvant chemotherapy.SurgerySurgery for stage III colon cancer is wide surgical resection and anastomosis.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer was examined in a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial (NCCTG-934653, now closed) comparing laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) with open colectomy.Three-year recurrence rates and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were similar in the two groups. (Refer to the Primary Surgical Therapy section in the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more

    8. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage I Colon Cancer Treatment

      Because of its localized nature, stage I colon cancer has a high cure rate.Standard Treatment Options for Stage I Colon CancerSurgeryStandard treatment options for stage I colon cancer include the following:Wide surgical resection and anastomosis.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer was examined in a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial (NCCTG-934653, now closed) comparing laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) with open colectomy.Three-year recurrence rates and 3-year overall survival rates were similar in the two groups. (Refer to the Primary Surgical Therapy section in the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.)The quality-of-life component of this trial has been published and minimal short-term quality-of-life benefits with LAC were reported.[5][Level of evidence: 1iiC]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials

    9. 10 Questions to Ask the Doctor About Colon Cancer

      WebMD offers 10 key questions to ask your doctor about colorectal cancer.

    10. Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer

      WebMD explains chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, including side effects.

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