Histologic types of colon cancer include the following:Adenocarcinoma (most colon cancers).Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma.Signet ring adenocarcinoma.Scirrhous tumors.Neuroendocrine. Tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation typically have a poorer prognosis than pure adenocarcinoma variants.References: Saclarides TJ, Szeluga D, Staren ED: Neuroendocrine cancers of the colon and rectum. Results of a ten-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 37 (7): 635-42, 1994.
Treatment decisions should be made with reference to the TNM classification system, rather than the older Dukes or the Modified Astler-Coller classification schema. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and a National Cancer Institute-sponsored panel recommended that at least 12 lymph nodes be examined in patients with colon and rectal cancer to confirm the absence of nodal involvement by the tumor.[2,3,4] This recommendation takes into consideration that the number of lymph nodes examined is a reflection of both the aggressiveness of lymphovascular mesenteric dissection at the time of surgical resection and the pathologic identification of nodes in the specimen. Retrospective studies, such as Intergroup trial INT-0089 [EST-2288], have demonstrated that the number of lymph nodes examined in colon and rectal surgery may be associated with patient outcome.[5,6,7,8]The staging system does not apply to the following histologies:Sarcoma. (See the
For the great majority of people,the major factor that increases a person's risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing age. Risk increases dramatically after age 50 years; 90% of all CRCs are diagnosed after this age. The history of CRC in a first-degree relative,especially if before the age of 55 years,roughly doubles the risk. Other risk factors are weaker than age and family history. ...
There are different types of treatment for patients with rectal cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with rectal cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used:SurgerySurgery is the most common treatment for all stages of rectal cancer. The cancer is removed using one of the following types of surgery:Polypectomy: If the cancer is found in a polyp (a small piece of bulging tissue), the polyp is often removed during a