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Colorectal Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

  1. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Colon Cancer

    Treatment decisions should be made with reference to the TNM classification [1] rather than to the older Dukes or the Modified Astler-Coller classification schema.The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and a National Cancer Institute–sponsored panel recommended that at least 12 lymph nodes be examined in patients with colon and rectal cancer to confirm the absence of nodal involvement by tumor.[2,3,4] This recommendation takes into consideration that the number of lymph nodes examined is a reflection of the aggressiveness of lymphovascular mesenteric dissection at the time of surgical resection and the pathologic identification of nodes in the specimen. Retrospective studies demonstrated that the number of lymph nodes examined in colon and rectal surgery may be associated with patient outcome.[5,6,7,8]AJCC Stage Groupings and TNM DefinitionsThe AJCC has designated staging by TNM classification to define

  2. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  3. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (07 / 25 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Evidence of BenefitRevised text about five sigmoidoscopy screening randomized controlled trials to state that there was an overall 28% relative reduction in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, an 18% relative reduction in CRC incidence, and a 33% relative reduction in the incidence of left-sided CRC.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  5. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Colon Cancer Treatment

    Stage 0 colon cancer is the most superficial of all the lesions and is limited to the mucosa without invasion of the lamina propria. Because of its superficial nature, the surgical procedure may be limited.Standard Treatment Options for Stage 0 Colon CancerSurgeryStandard treatment options for stage 0 colon cancer include the following:Local excision or simple polypectomy with clear margins.Colon resection for larger lesions not amenable to local excision.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 colon cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following risk factors increase the risk of colorectal cancer:AgeThe risk of colorectal cancer increases after age 50. Most cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed after age 50.Family history of colorectal cancerHaving a parent, brother, sister, or child with colorectal cancer doubles a person's risk of colorectal cancer.Personal historyHaving a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Inherited riskThe risk of colorectal cancer is increased when certain gene changes linked to familial

  7. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    BackgroundIncidence and mortalityColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide [1] and the second leading cause of cancer deaths (irrespective of gender) in the United States.[2] It is estimated that there will be 142,820 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013 and 50,830 deaths due to this disease.[2] Between 2005 and 2009, CRC incidence rates in the United States declined by 4.1% per year among adults aged 50 years and older.[2] For the past 20 years, the mortality rate has been declining in both men and women. Between 2005 and 2009, the mortality rate declined by 2.4% per year in men and by 3.1% per year in women. In adults younger than 50 years, CRC incidence rates increased by about 1.1% per year.[2] The overall 5-year survival rate is 64%. About 5% of Americans are expected to develop the disease

  10. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of rectal cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

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