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Colorectal Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

  1. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 03 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Colorectal Cancer; Colon Cancer Treatment; and Rectal Cancer Treatment are also available. Based on solid evidence,screening for colorectal cancer reduces colorectal cancer mortality,but there is little evidence that it reduces all cause mortality,possibly because of an observed increase in other causes of death. Table 1: Effect of Screening ...

  3. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Colon Cancer

    Colon cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the colon.The colon is part of the body's digestive system. The digestive system removes and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The digestive system is made up of the esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines. The first 6 feet of the large intestine are called the large bowel or colon. The last 6 inches are the rectum and the anal canal. The anal canal ends at the anus (the opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body).Anatomy of the lower digestive system, showing the colon and other organs.Gastrointestinal stromal tumors can occur in the colon. See the PDQ summary on Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treatment for more information. See the PDQ summary about Unusual Cancers of Childhood for information about colorectal cancer in children.Health history can affect the risk of

  4. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    BackgroundIncidence and mortalityColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide [1] and the second leading cause of cancer deaths (irrespective of gender) in the United States.[2] It is estimated that there will be 142,820 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013 and 50,830 deaths due to this disease.[2] Between 2005 and 2009, CRC incidence rates in the United States declined by 4.1% per year among adults aged 50 years and older.[2] For the past 20 years, the mortality rate has been declining in both men and women. Between 2005 and 2009, the mortality rate declined by 2.4% per year in men and by 3.1% per year in women. In adults younger than 50 years, CRC incidence rates increased by about 1.1% per year.[2] The overall 5-year survival rate is 64%. About 5% of Americans are expected to develop the disease

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  6. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Colon Cancer Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Stage II Colon CancerSurgeryStandard treatment options for stage II colon cancer include the following:Wide surgical resection and anastomosis.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer was examined in a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial (NCCTG-934653, now closed) comparing laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) to open colectomy.Three-year recurrence rates and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were similar in the two groups. (Refer to the Primary Surgical Therapy section in the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.)The quality-of-life component of this trial has been published and minimal short-term quality-of-life benefits with LAC were reported.[4][Level of evidence: 1iiC]Treatment Options Under Clinical EvaluationAdjuvant chemotherapyThe potential value of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon cancer remains

  7. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though colorectal cancer is present. A person who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay seeking medical care even if there are symptoms.False-positive test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be abnormal even though no cancer is present. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy), which also have risks.The following colorectal cancer screening tests have risks:Fecal

  9. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Rectal Cancer

    Treatment options:Preoperative chemoradiation with fluorouracil (5-FU) for patients with clinically staged T3 or T4 rectal adenocarcinoma.Total mesorectal excision (TME) with either low anterior resection (LAR) or abdominoperineal resection (APR).Postoperative chemoradiation for patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who did not receive preoperative chemoradiation.Four to six months of 5-FU-based chemotherapy postoperatively.A clinical trial.Prior to the standard use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II and III rectal cancer, several studies established the benefits of adjuvant combined-modality therapy for surgical stage II and III disease. Intergroup protocol 86-47-51 (MAYO-864751) demonstrated a 10% improvement in overall survival (OS) with the use of continuous-infusion 5-FU (225 mg/m2 /day throughout the entire course of radiation therapy) compared with bolus 5-FU (500 mg/m2 /day for three consecutive days during the first and fifth weeks of radiation).[1][Level of

  10. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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