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Colorectal Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

  1. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Rectal Cancer

    After rectal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the rectum or to other parts of the body.The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the rectum or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the abdomen, pelvis, or chest, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly.

  2. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of colon cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

  3. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV and Recurrent Colon Cancer Treatment

    Stage IV colon cancer denotes distant metastatic disease. Treatment of recurrent colon cancer depends on the sites of recurrent disease demonstrable by physical examination and/or radiographic studies. In addition to standard radiographic procedures, radioimmunoscintography may add clinical information that may affect management.[1] Such approaches have not led to improvements in long-term outcome measures such as survival.Treatment Options for Stage IV and Recurrent Colon CancerTreatment options for stage IV and recurrent colon cancer include the following:Surgical resection of locally recurrent cancer.Surgical resection and anastomosis or bypass of obstructing or bleeding primary lesions in selected metastatic cases.Resection of liver metastases in selected metastatic patients (5-year cure rate for resection of solitary or combination metastases exceeds 20%) or ablation in selected

  4. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Rectal Cancer

    Stage 0 rectal cancer is the most superficial of all rectal lesions and is limited to the mucosa without invasion of the lamina propria. Because of its superficial nature, surgical and other procedures may be limited. Standard treatment options:Local excision or simple polypectomy.[1]Full-thickness rectal resection by the transanal or transcoccygeal route for large lesions not amenable to local excision.Endocavitary radiation therapy.[2,3,4]Local radiation therapy.[2]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 rectal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Bailey HR, Huval WV, Max E, et al.: Local excision of carcinoma of the rectum for cure. Surgery 111 (5): 555-61, 1992. Kodner IJ, Gilley MT, Shemesh EI, et al.: Radiation

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Significance

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide [1] and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.[2] It is estimated that there will be 142,820 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013 and 50,830 deaths due to this disease. From 2005 to 2009, CRC incidence declined by 4.1% per year among adults aged 50 years and older. However, in adults younger than 50 years, CRC incidence rates have been increasing by 1.1% per year. From 2005 to 2009, mortality from CRC declined by 2.4% per year in men and 3.1% per year in women.[2] The incidence is higher in men than in women. It ranges from 46.1 per 100,000 per year in Hispanic men to 66.9 per 100,000 per year in African American men. In women, it ranges from 31.9 per 100,000 per year in Hispanics to 50.3 per 100,000 per year in African Americans.[3] The age-adjusted mortality rates for men and women are 20.2 per 100,000 per year in men and 14.1 per 100,000 per year in women.[3] About 5%

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery. Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Studies show that screening for

  7. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 20 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258008-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Colorectal Cancer Screening

  9. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  10. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV and Recurrent Rectal Cancer

    Treatment options for local control:Resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer may be curative in selected patients.[1]Palliative surgical resection with either low-anterior resection (LAR) or abdominoperineal resection (APR).[1] Palliative radiation therapy.[2,3]Palliative chemotherapy.[4,5,6,7,8,9,10]Palliative chemoradiation.[11,12]Chemotherapy alone for local control.Palliative, endoscopic-placed stents to relieve obstruction.[13]Treatment options for systemic control:Resection of liver metastases in selected patients (5-year cure rate with resection of solitary metastases exceeds 20%).[14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23]Resection of isolated pulmonary or ovarian metastases.Systemic chemotherapy (see below).Clinical trials evaluating new drugs.Metastatic Rectal CancerTreatment of patients with recurrent or advanced colorectal cancer depends on the location of the disease. For patients with locally

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