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Colorectal Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Colorectal Cancer

  1. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Rectal Cancer

    Treatment decisions should be made with reference to the TNM classification system,[1] rather than the older Dukes or the Modified Astler-Coller classification schema. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and a National Cancer Institute-sponsored panel recommended that at least 12 lymph nodes be examined in patients with colon and rectal cancer to confirm the absence of nodal involvement by the tumor.[2,3,4] This recommendation takes into consideration that the number of lymph nodes examined is a reflection of both the aggressiveness of lymphovascular mesenteric dissection at the time of surgical resection and the pathologic identification of nodes in the specimen. Retrospective studies, such as Intergroup trial INT-0089 [EST-2288], have demonstrated that the number of lymph nodes examined in colon and rectal surgery may be associated with patient outcome.[5,6,7,8]The staging system does not apply to the following histologies:Sarcoma. (See the

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  3. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 08 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Colon CancerUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Stage III Colon Cancer TreatmentAdded text to state that for patients with stage III colon cancer, capecitabine provides equivalent outcome to intravenous 5-FU and leucovorin.Stage IV and Recurrent Colon Cancer TreatmentRevised text to state that a meta-analysis of the randomized studies, which were all done in the era when only fluoropyrimidines were available for systemic therapy, did not demonstrate a survival advantage (cited Mocellin et al. as reference 40).Added text to include aflibercept as one of the eight active and approved drugs for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Added text to state that a major question was whether the use

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Colorectal Cancer

    Colorectal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the colon or the rectum. The colon and rectum are parts of the body's digestive system. The digestive system removes and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The digestive system is made up of the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines. The first 6 feet of the large intestine are called the large bowel or colon. The last 6 inches are the rectum and the anal canal. The anal canal ends at the anus (the opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body).Anatomy of the lower digestive system, showing the colon and other organs.Cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer, and cancer that begins in the rectum is called rectal cancer. Cancer that begins in either of these organs may also be called colorectal cancer.See the following PDQ summaries for

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  6. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Colorectal Cancer Screening; Colon Cancer Treatment; and Rectal Cancer Treatment are also available.Factors Associated With Increased Risk of Colorectal CancerExcessive alcohol useBased on solid evidence from observational studies, excessive alcohol use is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).[1,2,3]Magnitude of Effect: A pooled analysis of eight cohort studies estimated an adjusted relative risk (RR) of 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.72) for consumption exceeding 45 g/day.Study Design: Cohort studies.Internal Validity: Fair.Consistency: Fair.External Validity: Fair.Cigarette smokingBased on solid evidence, cigarette smoking is associated with increased incidence and mortality from CRC.Magnitude of Effect: A pooled analysis of 106 observational studies estimated an adjusted RR (current smokers vs. never smokers) for developing CRC of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.11–1.25).Study Design:

  7. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062763-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Colorectal Cancer Prevention

  8. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 08 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Rectal Cancer Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  9. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Colon Cancer

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about colon cancer, see the following:Colon and Rectal Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the Colon and RectumColorectal Cancer PreventionColorectal Cancer ScreeningTests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and PolypsUnusual Cancers of ChildhoodCryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and AnswersDrugs Approved for Colon CancerTargeted Cancer TherapiesUnderstanding Cancer Series: Targeted Therapies (Advances in Targeted Therapies)Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer SyndromesFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For

  10. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 27 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

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