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Colon Polyps - Treatment Overview

Polyps are removed during screening if you have a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The polyp is examined to find out if it is the kind that could become cancer.

Initial treatment

If adenomatous polyps are found during an exam with flexible sigmoidoscopy, a colonoscopy will be done to look for and remove any polyps in the rest of the colon.

The bigger a colon polyp is, especially if it is larger than 1 cm (0.4 in.), the more likely it is that the polyp will be adenomatous or contain cancer cells.

If only hyperplastic polyps are found during your flexible sigmoidoscopy, you likely do not need to have a colonoscopy. These polyps do not become cancerous. In this case you can continue your regular screenings, unless you are at an increased risk for colon cancer because of a family history of colon cancer or an inherited polyp syndrome.

A sessile polyp camera.gif doesn't have a stalk. It is mostly a flat growth. Like other colon polyps, it grows on the inside wall of the colon. Sessile polyps can turn into cancer. Like other polyps, they are removed if found during sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.

Risks of removing polyps during colonoscopy

Complications from colonoscopy are rare. There is a slight risk of:

  • Puncturing the colon (less than 1 in 1,000) or causing severe bleeding by damaging the wall of the colon (less than 3 in 1,000).
  • Bleeding caused by removing a polyp.
  • Complications from sedatives given during the procedure.

Ongoing treatment

Regular screenings for colon polyps are the best way to prevent polyps from developing into colon cancer.

Most colon polyps can be identified and removed during a colonoscopy.

If you have had one or more adenomatous polyps removed, you probably need regular follow-up colonoscopy exams every 3 to 5 years. Talk with your doctor about the follow-up schedule that he or she thinks is best for you.

Treatment if the condition gets worse

Surgery is sometimes needed for large colon polyps that have a broad area of attachment (sessile polyps camera.gif) to the colon wall. These large polyps sometimes cannot be removed safely during a colonoscopy and may be more likely to develop into cancer.

If cancer is found when the colon polyps are examined, you will begin treatment for colorectal cancer. For more information, see the topic Colorectal Cancer.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: August 20, 2013
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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