In general, rectal carcinoids smaller than 1 cm can be safely removed by endoscopic excision. Excised specimens should be examined histologically to exclude muscularis invasion.[2,3,4,5]
Tumors measuring 1 cm to 2 cm should be investigated by transanal endosonography or magnetic resonance imaging. Absence of muscularis invasion or regional metastases may justify local excision. The outcome from treating a lesion between 1 cm and 2 cm is unclear. The metastatic risk is between 10% and 15%....
Sometimes colorectal cancer that has spread to the liver can be removed
by surgery. But usually other treatments are needed, such as:
Radiofrequency ablation. A small wire that sends out radio waves is inserted into the
tumor. The radio waves destroy the cancer that has spread to the liver without harming healthy
Cryosurgery. This may be done in
surgery for cancer that has spread to the liver. Liquid nitrogen
is used to freeze and destroy cancer cells.
Embolization. This shrinks a cancer that has spread to the liver by
cutting off its blood supply.
Interstitial radiation therapy. In
this type of internal radiation treatment, radioactive material sealed in
needles, wires, seeds, or catheters is placed directly into the tumor or body
Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy. The surgeon implants a small pump in the belly that
delivers chemotherapy right into the tumor. The pump can be left in place as
long as needed.
Clinical trials are studies that look for new treatments. If you are interested, ask your
doctor if there are trials you can take part in. The National
Cancer Institute or your local chapter of the American Cancer Society can also
help you find clinical trials.
People sometimes use complementary therapies along with medical treatment to help relieve symptoms and side effects of treatments. Some of the complementary therapies that may be helpful include:
These treatments may help you feel better. They can make it easier to cope with cancer treatments. They also may reduce chronic low back pain, joint pain, headaches, and pain from treatments.
Before you try a complementary therapy, talk to your doctor about the possible value and side effects. Let your doctor know if you are already using any such therapies. These treatments aren't meant to take the place of standard medical treatment. But they may improve your quality of life and help you deal with the stress and side effects of cancer treatment.
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
January 29, 2013
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this