Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
Treatment options for local control:
Resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer may be curative in selected patients.
Palliative surgical resection with either...