Skip to content

Colorectal Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Stage Information for Rectal Cancer

Table 2. Regional Lymph Nodes (N)a,b

a Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Colon and rectum. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 143-164.
b A satellite peritumoral nodule in the pericolorectal adipose tissue of a primary carcinoma without histologic evidence of residual lymph node in the nodule may represent discontinuous spread, venous invasion with extravascular spread (V1/2), or a totally replaced lymph node (N1/2). Replaced nodes should be counted separately as positive nodes in the N category, whereas discontinuous spread or venous invasion should be classified and counted in the site-specific factor category Tumor Deposits.
NXRegional lymph nodes cannot be assessed.
N0No regional lymph node metastasis.
N1Metastases in 1–3 regional lymph nodes.
N1aMetastasis in 1 regional lymph node.
N1bMetastases in 2–3 regional lymph nodes.
N1cTumor deposit(s) in the subserosa, mesentery, or nonperitonealized pericolic or perirectal tissues without regional nodal metastases.
N2Metastases in ≥4 regional lymph nodes.
N2aMetastases in 4–6 regional lymph nodes.
N2bMetastases in ≥7 regional lymph nodes.

Table 3. Distant Metastasis (M)a

a Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Colon and rectum. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 143-164.
M0No distant metastasis.
M1Distant metastasis.
M1aMetastasis confined to 1organ or site (e.g., liver, lung, ovary, nonregional node).
M1bMetastases in >1 organ/site or the peritoneum.

Table 4. Anatomic Stage/Prognostic Groupsa,b

StageTNMDukescMACc
a Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Colon and rectum. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 143-164.
b cTNM is the clinical classification, and pTNM is the pathologic classification. The y prefix is used for those cancers that are classified after neoadjuvant pretreatment (e.g., ypTNM). Patients who have a complete pathologic response (ypT0, N0, cM0) may be similar to stage group 0 or I. The r prefix is to be used for those cancers that have recurred after a disease-free interval (rTNM).
c Dukes B is a composite of better (T3, N0, M0) and worse (T4, N0, M0) prognostic groups, as is Dukes C (any T, N1, M0 and any T, N2, M0). MAC is the modified Astler-Coller classification.
0TisN0M0----
IT1N0M0AA
 T2N0M0AB1
IIAT3N0M0BB2
IIBT4aN0M0BB2
IICT4bN0M0BB3
IIIAT1–T2N1/N1cM0CC1
 T1N2aM0CC1
IIIBT3–T4aN1/N1cM0CC2
 T2–T3N2aM0CC1/C2
 T1–T2N2bM0CC1
IIICT4aN2aM0CC2
 T3–T4aN2bM0CC2
 T4bN1–N2M0CC3
IVAAny TAny NM1a----
IVBAny TAny NM1b----
1|2|3

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
The right diagnosis is the most important factor.
man with a doctor
Our health check will steer you in the right direction.
 
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
bladder cancer x-ray
Do you know the warning signs?
 
bread
ARTICLE
Colon vs Rectal Cancer
VIDEO
 
New Colorectal Treatments
VIDEO
can lack of sleep affect your immune system
FEATURE
 
Cancer Facts Quiz
QUIZ
Virtual Colonoscopy
VIDEO
 
Picture of the Colon
ANATOMY
Vitamin D
SLIDESHOW
 

WebMD Special Sections