What Are the Depression Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder?
The clinical depression symptoms seen with bipolar disorder are the same as those seen in major depressive disorder and include:
- Decreased appetite and/or weight loss, or overeating and weight gain
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering, and making decisions
Fatigue, decreased energy, being "slowed down"
- Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness
- Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism
Insomnia, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
- Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed, including sex
- Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain
- Persistently sad, anxious, or "empty" moods
- Restlessness, irritability
- Thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts
What Are the Signs of Mania in Bipolar Disorder?
The signs of mania in bipolar disorder include:
- Disconnected and very fast (racing) thoughts
- Grandiose beliefs
- Inappropriate elation or euphoria
- Inappropriate irritability
- Inappropriate social behavior
- Increased sexual desire
- Increased talking speed or volume
- Markedly increased energy
- Poor judgment
- A decreased need for sleep due to high energy
What Is Bipolar II Disorder?
While mania is the main characteristic of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II has milder periods of elation known as hypomania. It also has episodes of major depression. According to the DSM-5, the diagnostic manual published by the American Psychiatric Association, the difference between mania and hypomania is "the degree of severity" as well as an absence of psychosis (delusions or hallucinations) in hypomania and no negative impact from "high" symptoms in work and social functioning.
What Are Signs of Hypomania in Bipolar II Disorder?
Signs of hypomania in bipolar II disorder include:
- Decreased need for sleep
- Extreme focus on projects at work or at home
- Exuberant and elated mood
- Increased confidence
- Increased creativity and productivity
- Increased energy and libido
- Reckless behaviors
- Risky pleasure-seeking behaviors
How Is Bipolar Disorder Diagnosed?
As with most mood disorders, there is no laboratory test or brain imaging method to diagnose bipolar disorder. After performing a physical exam, your doctor will evaluate your signs and symptoms. Your doctor will also ask you about your personal medical history and family history. Lab tests may be done to rule out other medical illnesses that can affect mood.