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Diabetes Health Center

Diabetes Complications: What's Your Risk?

Why are people with diabetes at high risk of nerve pain, heart disease, and blindness?
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Preventing Diabetes Complications With Medication

Getting blood sugar under control isn't always difficult. Sometimes all you need are lifestyle changes -- eating right, getting regular exercise, losing weight -- to get it into a safe range. If you're a smoker, there's no question -- you've got to quit.

Also, finding ways to ease the stress in your life helps control blood sugar, as does treatment for depression. Both stress and depression increase the level of cortisol, a hormone that affects blood sugar. "Cortisol makes the diabetes worse," Ziemer tells WebMD. "There is evidence that treating depression may help blood sugar control." He is heading a study investigating that link.

For some people, taking just one diabetes medication helps tremendously. Complex new drugs like Byetta, Januvia, and Symlin work from different angles to attack high blood sugar. "All the new drugs hold a lot of promise," says Ziemer, who is also a professor of endocrinology at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta.

If you need to take insulin, you'll find the injections aren't that bad. "The new versions of insulin are far less cumbersome," Ziemer explains. You don't need to lay out a lot of needles and vials on the table. The insulin can be discreetly injected via a little pen -- much like a cartridge writing pen. Insulin mouth sprays and insulin patches are being developed.

Fewer Diabetes Complications = Less Pain

By reining in blood sugar, you slow down the damage to the body's nerves and blood vessels. You can even halt damage altogether. The benefits show up in many ways.

You can ease the pain or numbness you feel in hands, arms, feet, and legs. "When you prevent more damage to nerves, you keep pain from getting worse," Ziemer explains. "We don't have any medications to repair nerve damage. Mostly, we're protecting what's left."

Gum disease and tooth loss can be halted when blood sugar is controlled, adds Ziemer. "In fact, when you get gum infection under control, you help keep blood sugar under control. Infection in the gums increases inflammation in the body, which makes controlling diabetes harder."

Is This Normal? Get the Facts Fast!

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If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.

People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.

Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.

However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.

Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.

One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

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