Diabetic Nephropathy

What Is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Diabetic nephropathy -- kidney disease that results from diabetes -- is the number one cause of kidney failure. Almost a third of people with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy.

People with diabetes and kidney disease do worse overall than people with kidney disease alone. This is because people with diabetes tend to have other long-standing medical conditions, like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and blood vessel disease (atherosclerosis). People with diabetes also are more likely to have other kidney-related problems, such as bladder infections and nerve damage to the bladder.

Kidney disease in type 1 diabetes is slightly different than in type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, kidney disease rarely begins in the first 10 years after diagnosis of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, some patients already have kidney disease by the time they are diagnosed with diabetes.

What Are the Symptoms of Diabetic Nephropathy?

There are often no symptoms with early diabetic nephropathy. As the kidney function worsens, symptoms may include:

As kidney damage progresses, your kidneys cannot remove the waste from your blood. The waste then builds up in your body and can reach poisonous levels, a condition known as uremia. People with uremia are often confused and occasionally become comatose.

How Is Diabetic Nephropathy Diagnosed?

Certain blood tests that look for specific blood chemistry can be used to diagnose kidney damage. It also can be detected early by finding protein in the urine. Treatments are available that can help slow progression to kidney failure. That's why you should have your urine tested every year if you have diabetes.

How Is Diabetic Nephropathy Treated?

Lowering blood pressure and maintaining blood sugar control are absolutely necessary to slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Some medicines called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can help slow down the progression of kidney damage. Although ACE inhibitors -- including ramipril (Altace), quinapril (Accupril) , and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril) -- are usually used to treat high blood pressure and other medical problems, they are often given to people with diabetes to prevent complications, even if their blood pressure is normal.

If a person has side effects from taking ACE inhibitors, another class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) can often be given instead.

If not treated, the kidneys will continue to fail and larger amounts of proteins can be detected in the urine. Advanced kidney failure requires treatment with dialysis or a kidney transplant.


WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by William Blahd, MD on July 23, 2016

Sources

SOURCES: 

National Kidney Foundation: “Diabetes and Kidney Disease.” 

American Diabetes Association: “Kidney Disease (Nephropathy).” 

The Kidney Foundation: “Diabetes and Kidney Disease.” 

Gross, J. Diabetes Care 2005.

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