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    Types of Diabetes Mellitus

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    Type 1 Diabetes continued...

    A periodic test called the A1C blood test estimates glucose levels in your blood over the previous three months. It's used to help identify overall glucose level control and the risk of complications from diabetes, including organ damage.

    Having type 1 diabetes does require significant lifestyle changes that include:

    People with type 1 diabetes can lead long, active lives if they carefully monitor their glucose, make the needed lifestyle changes, and adhere to the treatment plan.

    Type 2 Diabetes

    By far, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, accounting for 95% of diabetes cases in adults. Some 26 million American adults have been diagnosed with the disease.

    Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes, but with the epidemic of obese and overweight kids, more teenagers are now developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Type 2 diabetes is often a milder form of diabetes than type 1. Nevertheless, type 2 diabetes can still cause major health complications, particularly in the smallest blood vessels in the body that nourish the kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 diabetes also increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.

    With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin. But either the amount produced is not enough for the body's needs, or the body's cells are resistant to it. Insulin resistance, or lack of sensitivity to insulin, happens primarily in fat, liver, and muscle cells.

    People who are obese -- more than 20% over their ideal body weight for their height -- are at particularly high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and its related medical problems. Obese people have insulin resistance. With insulin resistance, the pancreas has to work overly hard to produce more insulin. But even then, there is not enough insulin to keep sugars normal.

    There is no cure for diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can, however, be controlled with weight management, nutrition, and exercise. Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes tends to progress, and diabetes medications are often needed.

    An A1C test is a blood test that estimates average glucose levels in your blood over the previous three months. Periodic A1C testing may be advised to see how well diet, exercise, and medications are working to control blood sugar and prevent organ damage. The A1C test is typically done a few times a year.

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