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Insulin for Gestational Diabetes

Examples

Rapid-acting

Generic NameBrand Name
insulin aspartNovoLog
insulin lisproHumalog

Short-acting

Generic NameBrand Name
insulin regularHumulin R, Humulin R U-500, Novolin R

Intermediate-acting

Generic NameBrand Name
insulin NPHHumulin N, Novolin N

Mixtures

Generic NameBrand Name
50% lispro protamine and 50% lisproHumalog Mix 50/50
50% NPH and 50% regularHumulin 50/50
70% aspart protamine and 30% aspartNovoLog Mix 70/30
70% NPH and 30% regularHumulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30
75% lispro protamine and 25% lisproHumalog Mix 75/25

Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, a gland behind the stomach. The medicine form of insulin helps the body use glucose. Insulin cannot be taken as a pill, because stomach acid destroys insulin before it can enter the blood.

Insulin is categorized according to how fast it starts to work and how long it continues to work. The types of insulin available include rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulin. See types of insulin for more information. Insulin strength is usually U-100, but U-500 is also available, which is five times more concentrated than U-100. If you are very resistant to insulin, U-500 allows you to inject fewer units but get more of the medicine.

Packaging

Insulin is packaged in small glass bottles that are sealed with rubber lids. One bottle of U-100 insulin holds 1,000 units, which is many doses of insulin. It is also packaged in small cartridges used in pen-shaped devices (insulin pens) attached to disposable needles. Insulin bottles and cartridges are labeled with important information you should read, such as the expiration date.

How insulin is taken

Insulin usually is given as a shot under the skin. It can also be given through an insulin pump or a jet injector, a device that sprays the medicine into the skin. Some insulins can be given in a vein, but this is only done in a hospital.

How It Works

Insulin reduces blood sugar levels by helping sugar (glucose) enter the cells to be used for energy. Sometimes women who have gestational diabetes need to take two types of insulin, usually a rapid- or short-acting and an intermediate-acting type. Long-acting insulins have not proved to be safe for use during pregnancy.

  • The short-acting insulin reduces blood sugar levels quickly and then wears off.
  • The combination of a rapid- or short-acting and intermediate-acting insulin helps keep blood sugar levels in a target range both before and after meals.

Why It Is Used

You will need to take insulin if changing the way you eat and getting regular exercise do not keep your blood sugar in a target range. Keeping your blood sugar in a target range is the best way to prevent problems from gestational diabetes, such as a baby who grows too large or a baby who is born with low blood sugar. Usually, gestational diabetes goes away after your baby is born. Then you no longer need insulin.

People who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes also need to take insulin. For information on insulin for these types of diabetes, see the topics Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes.

How Well It Works

Insulin is effective in reducing blood sugar levels by helping sugar (glucose) enter the cells to be used for energy.

Side Effects

All medicines have side effects. But many people don't feel the side effects, or they are able to deal with them. Ask your pharmacist about the side effects of each medicine you take. Side effects are also listed in the information that comes with your medicine.

Here are some important things to think about:

  • Usually the benefits of the medicine are more important than any minor side effects.
  • Side effects may go away after you take the medicine for a while.
  • If side effects still bother you and you wonder if you should keep taking the medicine, call your doctor. He or she may be able to lower your dose or change your medicine. Do not suddenly quit taking your medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Call911or other emergency services right away if you have:

  • Trouble breathing.
  • Swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Passed out (lost consciousness) or suddenly become very sleepy or confused. You may have low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia.

Call your doctor if:

  • You have hives.
  • You often have problems with high or low blood sugar levels.

Common side effects of this medicine include:

  • Low blood sugar.

See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)

What To Think About

What you need to know

Insulin will work faster if:

  • It is accidentally injected into a muscle instead of into fatty tissue.
  • You have just exercised the muscles in the area where you give your insulin injection.
  • You put a heat pack on or massage the area where you have just given your insulin injection.

To learn how to prepare and give insulin injections, see:

actionset.gif Gestational Diabetes: Giving Yourself Insulin Shots.

Things to check

A bottle of insulin may not work well after 30 days. Label each insulin bottle the first time you use it. Then after 30 days, throw away any insulin you did not use from that bottle.

Always check the expiration date on the bottle.

Insulin should be stored properly. If it is not, it may break down and not work very well.

Taking medicine

Medicine is one of the many tools your doctor has to treat a health problem. Taking medicine as your doctor suggests will improve your health and may prevent future problems. If you don't take your medicines properly, you may be putting your health (and perhaps your life) at risk.

There are many reasons why people have trouble taking their medicine. But in most cases, there is something you can do. For suggestions on how to work around common problems, see the topic Taking Medicines as Prescribed.

Checkups

Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.

Complete the new medication information form (PDF)(What is a PDF document?) to help you understand this medication.

ByHealthwise Staff
Primary Medical ReviewerSarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical ReviewerAlan C. Dalkin, MD - Endocrinology
Last RevisedMay 14, 2012

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: May 14, 2012
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.

People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.

Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.

However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.

Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.

One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

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