The kidneys have several important functions. They:Remove waste. The kidneys filter waste products and excess fluid out of the blood and remove them from the body in the form of urine. Waste products and excess fluid are produced by the normal breakdown of food and the chemical reactions that occur in cells throughout the body (metabolism). Filtering waste products is the most important function of the kidneys. Keep the right balance of chemicals in the body. The kidneys keep the right balance of chemicals, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and other substances your body needs to function properly. They filter excess amounts of these chemicals from the blood and get rid of them in the urine.Make hormones. The kidneys produce three important hormones: renin, erythropoietin, and the active form of vitamin D. Renin helps regulate blood pressure. Erythropoietin is needed to make red blood cells. Your body needs the active form of vitamin D to absorb calcium from food.
A decrease in the number of circulating blood cells (anemia) is a common problem in people who have chronic kidney disease. It is often caused by a decrease in the amount of a protein produced by the kidneys (erythropoietin). Some people who receive man-made erythropoietin (rhEPO therapy) continue to have anemia because of low levels of iron in their blood. These people are usually given extra iron to help treat this problem. Intravenous (IV) iron may be needed if oral iron does not increase iron levels. IV iron can also be used to treat anemia that occurs during hemodialysis.
Dialysis is a lifesaving treatment when you have kidney failure. To keep up a regular dialysis schedule, you need a sturdy dialysis access where blood can flow in and out of the body. It must have a good, steady blood flow.Any type of dialysis access has some risk of failure. So it's important to always protect your access and be alert for signs of clotting or infection. Call your doctor right away about any signs of trouble. Make a habit of talking with your dialysis nurses and doctor about how well your access is doing.If your dialysis access fails, it will be repaired or replaced. You and your doctor will choose your next best option for dialysis access. What are the options for hemodialysis access?Permanent accessThere are two permanent access types:An arteriovenous (AV) graft is made by inserting a small tube between an artery and a vein, usually in the upper arm or forearm. A graft is a good choice if you have small veins or other problems. It can sometimes be used as soon as 1
The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known. However, experts believe the disease develops in children the same way it does in adults: The body does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, or it cannot use the insulin available (insulin resistance)
Children often have no symptoms of type 2 diabetes before they are diagnosed because their blood sugar level has been rising so slowly. As a result, a child may have diabetes for several years before being diagnosed.
The major risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children include: Being overweight. 85% of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes have a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or above for their age and sex.
Type 2 diabetes usually develops in adulthood; however, the number of children being diagnosed with the disease is rising. Children with type 2 diabetes are usually diagnosed during the early teen years.
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Your level is currently
If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.
People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.
Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.
However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.
Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.
One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
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