June 22, 2010 -- People with diabetes can be extra sensitive to high temperatures, and many don't take enough precautions early enough, according to a new survey.
The results weren't all bad. "Most patients incorporated appropriate personal protective measures such as staying indoors, drinking additional fluids on schedule, applying sunscreen, and wearing protective clothing," says Adrienne A. Nassar, MD, a third year resident at Mayo Clinic Arizona, who presented the findings at ENDO 2010 in San Diego, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society.
But the respondents fell short in other ways. For instance, one in five waited until temperatures were over 100 degrees before taking precautions, Nassar said at a news conference And 23% began drinking fluids when they got thirsty -- typically too late to prevent dehydration effectively. Many left their medications and monitoring equipment at home during a heat wave.
Nassar and her colleagues analyzed responses of 152 people with diabetes living in Phoenix, where the average July temperature is 107 F.
On average, the patients were 64 years old, 85% had type 2 diabetes, and 77% were on insulin injections or pumps. Their blood glucose test results on the hemoglobin A1c tests were on average 7.9%, although the goal for those with diabetes is 7%.
While many respondents protected their medication in the heat by carrying it in a cooler, 37% left medication or supplies at home.
"This is quite concerning,'' Nassar says, "because they would not have the means to check their blood sugar" if they became faint, for instance.
While most respondents, 72%, knew about the effect of heat on insulin, just 40% said they had gotten information from their health care providers about the ill effects of high temperature on oral medications, 41% on glucose monitors, and 38% on glucose monitoring strips.
The point at which respondents said they would take protective measures varies. Nassar can't pinpoint an exact temperature at which protective measures should begin since it depends not only on temperature but on such factors as humidity.
Only 55% of the survey respondents knew the definition of ''heat index," she found. Heat index is a measure of how hot it feels when the relative humidity is added to the air temperature. For instance, if the temperature is 108 F but the humidity is 45%, the heat index is 137 F.
According to the National Weather Service, those in high risk groups should begin taking precautions when the heat index reaches 80 or 90 to avoid heat stroke, sunstroke, and other problems.
Nassar found that 68% of respondents limited heat exposure to less than an hour, but that many people delayed protective measures too long. ''Overall, we found many patients expose themselves to high temperatures before taking protective measures," Nassar says.
Get the latest Diabetes newsletter delivered to your inbox!
Your level is currently
If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.
People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.
Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.
However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.
Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.
One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
Thank you for signing up for the WebMD Diabetes Newsletter!
You'll find tips and tricks as well as the latest news and research on Diabetes.
Did You Know Your Lifestyle Choices
Affect Your Blood Sugar?
Use the Blood Glucose Tracker to monitor
how well you manage your blood sugar over time.