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Artificial Pancreas Beats Insulin Pump in Test


WebMD News from HealthDay

By Serena Gordon

HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The artificial pancreas -- a treatment that's been called the closest thing to a possible cure for type 1 diabetes -- may be another step closer to becoming a reality.

Israeli researchers just released the findings from an overnight trial of their artificial pancreas system at three different camps for youngsters with type 1 diabetes. The artificial pancreas system was able to maintain better blood sugar levels, and helped prevent dangerous overnight drops in blood sugar levels, compared to an insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitor, according to the study.

"There is hope for better control without the fear of [low blood sugar levels], and therefore improvement in quality of life is coming soon," said study author Dr. Moshe Phillip.

Philip is director of the Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes at the National Center for Childhood Diabetes at the Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, in Tel Aviv. The findings appear in the Feb. 28 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system turns against healthy cells. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks beta cells in the pancreas, effectively destroying the body's ability to produce the hormone insulin. Insulin helps metabolize carbohydrates from food and fuels the body's cells.

Insulin can't be replaced with a pill. It must be injected with a shot or delivered by a pump that uses a tiny catheter inserted under the skin. This catheter must be changed every few days. The problem with both techniques is that people have to estimate how much insulin they'll need based on the foods they eat and how much activity they'll be doing.

Too much insulin can result in low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia), which makes a person with diabetes feel awful, and if left untreated, can cause a person to pass out. Low blood sugar levels can even lead to death. Too little insulin leads to high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), which over time can cause serious complications, such as heart disease and kidney and eye problems.

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