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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, and Blood Sugar

The body uses three main nutrients to function—carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins.

Nutrients needed by the body and what they are used for

Type of nutrient

Where it is found

How it is used

Carbohydrate (starches and sugars)
  • Breads
  • Grains
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Milk and yogurt
  • Foods with sugar

Broken down into glucose, used to supply energy to cells. Extra is stored in the liver.

Protein
  • Meat
  • Seafood
  • Legumes
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Eggs
  • Milk products
  • Vegetables

Broken down into amino acids, used to build muscle and to make other proteins that are essential for the body to function.

Fat
  • Oils
  • Butter
  • Egg yolks
  • Animal products

Broken down into fatty acids to make cell linings and hormones. Extra is stored in fat cells.

After a meal, the blood sugar (glucose) level rises as carbohydrate is digested. This signals the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells to be used for energy. If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen. As sugar moves from the blood to the cells, the blood glucose level returns to a normal between-meal range.

Several hormones and processes help regulate the blood sugar level and keep it within a certain range (70 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL). When the blood sugar level falls below that range, which may happen between meals, the body has at least three ways of reacting:

  • Cells in the pancreas can release glucagon, a hormone that signals the body to produce glucose from glycogen in the muscles and liver and release it into the blood.
  • When glycogen is used up, muscle protein is broken down into amino acids. The liver uses amino acids to create glucose through biochemical reactions (gluconeogenesis).
  • Fat stores can be used for energy, forming ketones.

Other hormones can raise the blood sugar level, including epinephrine (also called adrenaline) and cortisol released by the adrenal glands and growth hormone released by the pituitary gland.

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Rhonda O'Brien, MS, RD, CDE - Certified Diabetes Educator
Current as of June 24, 2013

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: June 24, 2013
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.

People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.

Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.

However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.

Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.

One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

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