If you have diabetes, you know the disease can harm your eyes, nerves,
kidneys, heart and other important systems in the body. Did you know it can
also cause problems in your mouth? People with diabetes have a higher than
normal risk of periodontal diseases.
Periodontal diseases are infections of the gum and bone that hold the teeth
in place. In advanced stages, they lead to painful chewing problems and even
tooth loss. Like any infection, gum disease can make it hard to keep your blood
sugar under control.
Every 30 seconds, somewhere in the world, someone loses a lower limb as a
result of diabetes. That's because diabetes and wounds are a dangerous
If you have diabetes, there's no such thing as a minor wound to the foot --
even a small foot sore can turn into an ulcer that, if not properly treated,
can lead to amputation. The rate of amputation for people with diabetes is 10
times higher than for those who don't have the disease.
Most of these amputations could easily be prevented...
What Is the Link Between Diabetes and Periodontal Disease?
Diabetic Control. Like other complications of diabetes, gum disease
is linked to diabetic control. People with poor blood sugar control get gum
disease more often and more severely, and they lose more teeth than do persons
with good control. In fact, people whose diabetes is well controlled have no
more periodontal disease than persons without diabetes. Children with IDDM
(insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) are also at risk for gum problems. Good
diabetic control is the best protection against periodontal disease.
Studies show that controlling blood sugar levels lowers the risk of some
complications of diabetes, such as eye and heart disease and nerve damage.
Scientists believe many complications, including gum disease, can be prevented
with good diabetic control.
Blood Vessel Changes. Thickening of blood vessels is a complication
of diabetes that may increase risk for gum disease. Blood vessels deliver
oxygen and nourishment to body tissues, including the mouth, and carry away the
tissues' waste products. Diabetes causes blood vessels to thicken, which slows
the flow of nutrients and the removal of harmful wastes. This can weaken the
resistance of gum and bone tissue to infection.
Bacteria. Many kinds of bacteria (germs) thrive on sugars, including
glucose -- the sugar linked to diabetes. When diabetes is poorly controlled,
high glucose levels in mouth fluids may help germs grow and set the stage for
Smoking. The harmful effects of smoking, particularly heart disease
and cancer, are well known. Studies show that smoking also increases the
chances of developing gum disease. In fact, smokers are five times more likely
than nonsmokers to have gum disease. For smokers with diabetes, the risk is
even greater. If you are a smoker with diabetes, age 45 or older, you are 20
times more likely than a person without these risk factors to get severe gum
How Does Periodontal Disease Develop?
Gingivitis. Poor brushing and flossing habits allow dental plaque --
a sticky film of germs -- to build up on teeth. Some of these germs cause gum
disease. The gums can become red and swollen and may bleed during toothbrushing
or flossing. This is called gingivitis, the first stage of periodontal
Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and flossing and
regular cleanings by the dentist. If it is not stopped, gingivitis could lead
to a more serious type of gum disease called periodontitis.
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If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.
People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.
Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.
However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.
Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.
One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
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