Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Diabetes Health Center

Font Size

Prevention and Early Intervention for Diabetes Foot Problems

References continued...

11. Mayfield JA, Reiber GE, Nelson RG, Greene T: A foot risk classification system to predict diabetic amputation in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 19(7):704-709, 1996.

12. Murray HJ, Young MJ, Hollis S, Boulton AJ: The association between callus formation, high pressures and neuropathy in diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetic Medicine 13(11):979-982, 1996.

13. Lehto S, Pyorala K, Ronnemaa T, Laakso M: Risk factors predicting lower extremity amputations in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 19(6):607-612, 1996.

14. DCCT Research Group: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 329 (14):977-986, 1993.

15. Pecoraro RE, Reiber GE, Burgess EM: Pathways to diabetic limb amputation. Basis for prevention. Diabetes Care 13(5):513-521, 1990.

16. Isakov E, Susak Z, Budoragin N, Mendelevich I: Self injury resulting in amputation among vascular patients: A retrospective epidemiological study. Disability and Rehabilitation 14:78-80, 1992.

17. Apelqvist J, Larsson J, Agardh CD: The influence of external precipitating factors and peripheral neuropathy on the development and outcome of diabetic foot ulcers. Journal of Diabetes Complications 4(1):21-25, 1990.

18. Sanders LJ: Diabetes mellitus-prevention of amputation. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 84(7):322-328, 1994.

19. Rith-Najarian SJ, Stolusky T, Gohdes DM: Identifying diabetic patients at high risk for lower extremily amputation in a primary health care setting. A prospective evaluation of simple screening criteria. Diabetes Care 15(10):1386-1389, 1992.

20. Ahroni JH: Teaching foot care creatively and successfully. The Diabetes Educator 19(4):320- 325, 1993.

21. Litzelman DK, Slemenda CW, Langefeld, CD, Hays LM, Welch MA, Bild DE, Ford ES, Vinicor F: Reduction of lower extremity clinical abnormalities in patients with non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine 119(1):36-41, 1993.

22. Barth R, Campbell LV, Allen S, Jupp JJ, Chisholm DJ: Intensive education improves knowledge, compliance, and foot problems in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 8:111-117, 1991.

23. Caputo GM, Cavanagh PR, Ulbrecht JS, Gibbons GW, Karchmer AW: Assessment and management of foot disease in patients with diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 331(13): 854-860, 1994.

24. Ledda MA, Walker EA: Development and formative evaluation of a foot self-care program for African Americans with diabetes. The Diabetes Educator 23(1): 48-51, 1997.

25. Marchand LH, Campbell W, Rolfsen RJ: Lessons from "Feet Can Last a Lifetime": A public health campaign. Diabetes Spectrum 9(4): 214-218, 1996.

26. Fain JA, D'Eramo Melkus G: Nurse practitioner practice patterns based on standards of medical care for patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 17(8):879-881, 1994.

27. Thompson FJ, Masson EA: Can elderly diabetic patients cooperate with routine foot care? Age and Aging 21:333-337,1992.

WebMD Public Information from the U.S. National Institutes of Health

Is This Normal? Get the Facts Fast!

Check Your Blood Sugar Level Now
What type of diabetes do you have?
Your gender:

Get the latest Diabetes newsletter delivered to your inbox!


Your level is currently

If the level is below 70 or you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.

People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.

Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.

However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.

Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.

One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.

Did You Know Your Lifestyle Choices
Affect Your Blood Sugar?

Use the Blood Glucose Tracker to monitor
how well you manage your blood sugar over time.

Get Started

This tool is not intended for women who are pregnant.

Start Over

Step:  of 

Today on WebMD

Diabetic tools
Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and more.
woman flexing muscles
10 strength training exercises.
Blood sugar test
12 practical tips.
Tom Hanks
Stars living with type 1 or type 2.
Woman serving fast food from window
Can Vinegar Treat Diabetes
Middle aged person
are battery operated toothbrushes really better

Prediabetes How to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
type 2 diabetes
food fitness planner
Are You at Risk for Dupuytrens Contracture