Type 2 Diabetes - Exams and Tests
If your doctor thinks that you may have diabetes, he or she will order blood tests to measure how much sugar is in your blood. The tests used are blood glucose tests and hemoglobin A1c.
To make a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will use your blood test results and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. He or she will also ask you questions about your medical history and do a physical exam for type 2 diabetes.
Tests to monitor your health
You'll need to see your doctor every 3 to 6 months. At each visit you'll:
- Check your blood sugar levels since your last visit and review your target range.
- Check your blood pressure and start or adjust treatment if
your blood pressure is high. Nerve and blood vessel damage can result from high blood pressure, leading to heart problems and strokes. For more information, see the topic High Blood Pressure.
- Have a hemoglobin A1c test. This blood test shows how steady your blood
sugar levels have been over time.
See a list of
tests to monitor diabetes to help you remember what to do and when.
Review your progress regularly
Regular visits and checkups with your doctor are also a good time to:
- Review your meal plan.
- Review your physical activity.
- Review your mental health.
- Review your blood sugar records.
- Review your medicines.
These visits are also a good time to talk with your doctor about how you're feeling. It's normal to feel frustrated or overwhelmed with all there is to do. If you're having trouble coping, your doctor can help.
Tests to do every year
- A complete eye exam by an
ophthalmologist or optometrist. High blood sugar levels from diabetes can damage your eyes. This test can find problems early, such as diabetic retinopathy. If you do not have any signs of diabetic retinopathy, your doctor may recommend less frequent exams, for example, every 2 years.
- A foot exam for
signs of problems. Nerve damage in your feet makes it hard to feel an injury or infection. Take off your socks each time you see the doctor to be sure you both remember to check your feet.
- A cholesterol and triglyceride test. This test shows your LDL cholesterol level. You and your doctor can adjust your treatment plan according to how high it is.
- A urine test, to check for protein. If protein is found, you'll have more tests to help guide the best treatment. Protein in the urine can be a sign of kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy).
- A blood test for creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This test is used to screen for kidney disease.
- A liver function test. This test looks for damage to the liver.
- A thyroid-stimulating hormone test. Women over 50 years old or anyone with high cholesterol should have this test.