Types of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes that's triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (pregnancy, to some degree, leads to insulin resistance). It is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Because high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby, gestational diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby's growth and development.
According to the National Institutes of Health, the reported rate of gestational diabetes is between 2% to 10% of pregnancies. Gestational diabetes usually resolves itself after pregnancy. Having gestational diabetes does, however, put mothers at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Up to 10% of women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 diabetes. It can occur anywhere from a few weeks after delivery to months or years later.
With gestational diabetes, risks to the unborn baby are even greater than risks to the mother. Risks to the baby include abnormal weight gain before birth, breathing problems at birth, and higher obesity and diabetes risk later in life. Risks to the mother include needing a cesarean section due to an overly large baby, as well as damage to heart, kidney, nerves, and eye.
Treatment during pregnancy includes working closely with your health care team and:
- Careful meal planning to ensure adequate pregnancy nutrients without excess fat and calories
- Daily exercise
- Controlling pregnancy weight gain
- Taking diabetes insulin to control blood sugar levels if needed
Other Forms of Diabetes
A few rare kinds of diabetes can result from specific conditions. For example, diseases of the pancreas, certain surgeries and medications, or infections can cause diabetes. These types of diabetes account for only 1% to 5% of all cases of diabetes.