Food Science for Your Heart
Which functional foods are worth your money?
You may have heard a lot about functional foods -- bread, margarine, yogurt, and even eggs that have nutrients added to help your heart.
In an ideal world, you would get these nutrients from the foods that naturally contain them -- vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish, and healthy fats. But the American diet can sometimes fall short. So food scientists have added healthy ingredients like fiber to foods that don't normally have much of it, like white bread. And that turns a poor food into a functional food.
Three super-nutrients added to many foods are plant stanols/sterols, fiber, and omega-3s. Here's a look how they may help your heart.
Plant Stanols and Sterols
What are they? Plant stanols and sterols are found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. They have a structure much like cholesterol. In your digestive tract, they block real cholesterol, so less of this unhealthy fat moves into your bloodstream to clog your arteries.
How much do you need? You need 2 grams of either plant stanols or sterols daily for a healthy heart. This can bring down bad cholesterol (LDL) by 5%-15% in a few weeks. If you already eat butter, margarine, or oil-based spreads, switching to one with extra plant stanols or sterols might be a good move, says Christine Gerbstadt, MD, RD, of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. It's easy to overdo fats, though, so eat these margarines and oils in moderation.
What is it? Food scientists have created powdered fiber with no real flavor. It's added where you'd never expect to find it: in hot dog buns, sugary cereals, even yogurt. On the label it may be called inulin, maltodextrin, polydextrose, or chicory fiber. It often comes from different sources than the dietary fiber in oats, whole wheat bread, or bran cereal.
How does fiber help the heart? It's well known that fiber keeps people regular and can bring down your cholesterol level. Eating enough fiber can also lower your chances of developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. The problem is that most people don't get enough.
"Fiber added to bread or cereal can be a good thing," says Susan Moores, MS, RD. But scientists don't know whether adding refined fiber to foods will give you the same health benefits as eating fiber naturally found in foods. The best bet is to follow a healthy diet that includes foods that are naturally high in fiber: beans, vegetables, and whole grains, says Moores.
How much fiber do you need? Women need about 25 grams of fiber daily, while men need about 38 grams a day. Your body needs two kinds of fiber. Soluble fiber, which slows digestion, can be found in beans, nuts, and grains including oats. Insoluble fiber, which helps food pass through the body, and can be found in vegetables and whole grains.