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    6. Sodium nitrite

    Sodium nitrite is an additive used for curing meat.

    Foods that have it

    Sodium nitrite is usually found in preserved meat products, like sausages and canned meats.

    Why it's controversial

    There is a theory that eating a lot of sodium nitrite might cause gastric cancer.

    What the research shows

    There is evidence that sodium nitrite could have been to blame for a lot of the gastric cancers that people had in the past. Until the early 1930s, gastric cancer caused the most deaths of all cancers in the United States. After that, more Americans began to use modern refrigeration and ate less cured meat. Also, producers started to use much less sodium nitrite in the curing process around that time. As these changes took place, deaths from gastric cancer also dropped dramatically.

    This theory has been debated for decades, and it is still an open question.

    How you find it on the label

    Sodium nitrite will be listed as an ingredient on the labels of food products.

    7. Trans fat

    What it is

    Trans fats are created when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil. Trans fats are food additives in the sense that they're mainly added to the food supply by manufacturing processes, although small amounts of trans fats are present naturally in animal fat.

    Foods that have it

    These "partially hydrogenated oils" are used most often for deep-frying food, and in baked goods. Margarine and vegetable shortening may also be made with partially hydrogenated oil.

    Why it's controversial

    Trans fats are believed to increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

    What the research shows

    Most scientists now agree that eating trans fats can be very harmful to health. Trans fats have been found to lower people's HDL (good) cholesterol and raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. The American Heart Association recommends getting less than 1% of your daily calories from trans fats.

    How you find it on the label

    Product labels are now required to list the amount of trans fat in a serving. Partially hydrogenated oil may also be listed as an ingredient.

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