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    Gastroparesis

    Important
    It is possible that the main title of the report Gastroparesis is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

    Synonyms

    • gastropathy
    • gastroparesis diabeticorum
    • gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy
    • gastric stasis
    • gastric atony
    • delayed gastric emptying
    • gastric dysmotility
    • severe functional dyspepsia

    Disorder Subdivisions

    • diabetic gastroparesis
    • idiopathic gastroparesis
    • post-surgical gastroparesis

    General Discussion

    Gastroparesis (abbreviated as GP) represents a clinical syndrome characterized by sluggish emptying of solid food (and more rarely, liquid nutrients) from the stomach, which causes persistent digestive symptoms especially nausea and primarily affects young to middle-aged women, but is also known to affect younger children and males. Diagnosis is made based upon a radiographic gastric emptying test. Diabetics and those acquiring gastroparesis for unknown (or, idiopathic) causes represent the two largest groups of gastroparetic patients; however, numerous etiologies (both rare and common) can lead to a gastroparesis syndrome.

    Gastroparesis is also known as delayed gastric emptying and is an old term that does not adequately describe all the motor impairments that may occur within the gastroparetic stomach. Furthermore, there is no expert agreement on the use of the term, gastroparesis. Some specialists will reserve the term, gastroparesis, for grossly impaired emptying of the stomach while retaining the label of delayed gastric emptying, or functional dyspepsia (non-ulcer dyspepsia), for less pronounced evidence of impaired emptying. These terms are all very subjective. There is no scientific basis by which to separate functional dyspepsia from classical gastroparesis except by symptom intensity. In both conditions, there is significant overlap in treatment, symptomatology and underlying physiological disturbances of stomach function.

    For the most part, the finding of delayed emptying (gastric stasis) provides a "marker" for a gastric motility problem. Regardless, the symptoms generated by the stomach dysmotility greatly impair quality of life for the vast majority of patients and disable about 1 in 10 patients with the condition.

    While delayed emptying of the stomach is the clinical feature of gastroparesis, the relationship between the degree of delay in emptying and the intensity of digestive symptoms does not always match. For instance, some diabetics may exhibit pronounced gastric stasis yet suffer very little from the classical gastroparetic symptoms of: nausea, vomiting, reflux, abdominal pain, bloating, fullness, and loss of appetite. Rather, erratic blood-glucose control and life-threatening hypoglycemic episodes may be the only indication of diabetic gastroparesis. In another subset of patients (diabetic and non-diabetic) who suffer from disabling nausea that is to the degree that their ability to eat, sleep or carry out activities of daily living is disrupted gastric emptying may be normal, near normal, or intermittently delayed. In such cases, a gastric neuro-electrical dysfunction, or gastric dysrhythmia (commonly found associated with gastroparesis syndrome), may be at fault.

    Therefore, these disorders of functional dyspepsia, gastric dysrhythms, and gastroparesis are all descriptive labels sharing similar symptoms and perhaps representing a similar entity of disordered gastric neuromuscular function. For this reason, a more encompassing term, gastropathy, can be used interchangeably with gastroparesis.

    Resources

    Association of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Inc.
    12 Roberts Drive
    Bedford, MA 01730
    Tel: (781)275-1300
    Fax: (781)275-1304
    Email: gimotility@gmx.com
    Internet: http://www.agmd-gimotility.org

    American Diabetes Association
    1701 N. Beauregard Street
    Alexandria, VA 22311
    Tel: (703)549-1500
    Fax: (703)549-6995
    Tel: (800)342-2383
    Email: askADA@diabetes.org
    Internet: http://www.diabetes.org

    Digestive Disease National Coalition
    507 Capitol Court, NE
    Suite 200
    Washington, DC 20002
    Tel: (202)544-7497
    Fax: (202)546-7105
    Email: ddnc@hmcw.org
    Internet: http://www.ddnc.org

    NIH/National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive & Kidney Diseases
    Office of Communications & Public Liaison
    Bldg 31, Rm 9A06
    31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
    Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
    Tel: (301)496-3583
    Email: NDDIC@info.niddk.nih.gov
    Internet: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/

    International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
    700 W. Virginia St., 201
    Milwaukee, WI 53217
    USA
    Tel: (414)964-1799
    Fax: (414)964-7176
    Tel: (888)964-2001
    Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
    Internet: http://www.iffgd.org

    Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
    PO Box 8126
    Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
    Tel: (301)251-4925
    Fax: (301)251-4911
    Tel: (888)205-2311
    TDD: (888)205-3223
    Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

    International Scleroderma Network
    7455 France Ave So #266
    Edina, MN 55435-4702
    Tel: (952)583-5735
    Tel: (800)564-7099
    Email: isn@sclero.org
    Internet: http://www.sclero.org

    Gastroparesis & Dysmotilities Association
    5520 Dalhart Hill N.W.
    Calgary, AB, T3A 1S9
    Canada
    Tel: 4032473215
    Email: jkf@gpda.net
    Internet: http://www.digestivedistress.com

    For a Complete Report:

    This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

    The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

    It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

    This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

    For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

    Last Updated: 3/16/2012
    Copyright 2009, 2012 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

    WebMD Medical Reference from the National Organization for Rare Disorders

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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