Physical examination: A doctor may inspect the outside of the anus, and insert a gloved finger to feel for abnormal areas on the inside of the anus.
Sigmoidoscopy: An endoscope (flexible tube with a lighted camera on its tip) is inserted into the anus and moved into the colon. Sigmoidoscopy can only reach part of the colon for viewing.
Colonoscopy: An endoscope is inserted into the anus, and the entire colon is viewed to look for problems.
Fistulography (fistulogram): A liquid that helps improve image contrast is injected into an abnormal opening in or near the anus, and X-ray films are taken. Fistulography can detect an abnormal connection (fistula) between the anus and skin.
Antibiotics: These may be used to fight infections of the anus caused by bacteria.
Antiviral medications: Medicines such as acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valacyclovir (Valtrex) are used to treat anus infections caused by the herpes viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Incision and drainage: Serious skin infections (abscesses) in or around the anus may require this surgical procedure to drain the infected fluid.
Anus surgery: Cancer of the anus, anus warts, abscess, or fistula may require surgery to correct the problem.
Anus wart treatments: Doctors may use surgery, freezing (cryotherapy), a laser or heat probe, or other treatments to remove warts from the anus.
Stool softeners: Constipation may cause hard stools and painful bowel movements. Over-the-counter or prescription stool softeners can relieve these symptoms.
Fiber: Increasing fiber in the diet or taking fiber supplements can improve constipation and reduce bleeding from hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoid cream: Over-the-counter or prescription topical medicines can relieve the itching and discomfort caused by hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoid banding: A doctor ties rubber bands around external hemorrhoids, causing the tissue to slowly die and fall off.
Hemorrhoid procedures: A doctor may use a laser, heat probe, injections, or other treatment to destroy hemorrhoids and reduce symptoms.
Steroid cream: Itching in the anus often responds to over-the-counter creams containing hydrocortisone or a similar steroid medicine.