Capsule endoscopy: A person swallows a capsule that contains a camera. The camera takes pictures of possible problems in the small intestine, sending the images to a receiver worn on the persons belt
Upper endoscopy, EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy): A flexible tube with a camera on its end (endoscope) is inserted through the mouth. The endoscope allows examination of the duodenum, stomach, and esophagus.
Colonoscopy: An endoscope is inserted into the rectum and advanced through the colon. A doctor can examine the entire colon with a colonoscope.
Virtual colonoscopy: A test in which an X-ray machine and a computer create images of the inside of the colon. If problems are found, a traditional colonoscopy is usually needed.
Fecal occult blood testing: A test for blood in the stool. If blood is found in the stool, a colonoscopy may be needed to look for the source.
Sigmoidoscopy: An endoscope is inserted into the rectum and advanced through the left side of the colon. Sigmoidoscopy cannot be used to view the middle and right sides of the colon.
Colon biopsy: During a colonoscopy, a small piece of colon tissue may be removed for testing. A colon biopsy can help diagnose cancer, infection, or inflammation.
Antidiarrheal agents: Various medicines can slow down diarrhea, reducing discomfort. Reducing diarrhea does not slow down recovery for most diarrheal illnesses.
Stool softeners: Over-the-counter and prescription medicines can soften the stool and reduce constipation.
Laxatives: Medicines can relieve constipation by a variety of methods including stimulating the bowel muscles, and bringing in more water.
Enema: A term for pushing liquid into the colon through the anus. Enemas can deliver medicines to treat constipation or other colon conditions.
Colonoscopy: Using tools passed through an endoscope, a doctor can treat certain colon conditions. Bleeding, polyps, or cancer might be treated by colonoscopy.
Polypectomy: During colonoscopy, removal of a colon polyp is called polypectomy.
Colon surgery: Using open or laparoscopic surgery, part or all of the colon may be removed (colectomy). This may be done for severe bleeding, cancer, or ulcerative colitis.