GERD: Esophageal Erosion and Ulcers - Topic Overview
The backup, or reflux, of stomach acids and juices into the
esophagus that occurs with
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can wear away
(erode) the lining of the esophagus and cause sores, called ulcers.
GERD is caused when stomach acid and juices reflux into the esophagus.
This happens when the valve between the lower end of the esophagus and the
lower esophageal sphincter) does not close tightly.
This reflux can cause irritation, inflammation, or wearing away of the lining
of the esophagus, which is called esophagitis.
In severe cases,
patches of the lining of the esophagus wear away completely, and ulcers may
develop. Ulcers can be shallow or deep and can destroy the lining of the
esophagus where they develop.
Treatment for ulcers in the
esophagus usually means treating the GERD that caused the ulcer in the first
place. Treatment for GERD usually involves one of two options:
- Medicine. Medicines used to treat GERD include:
- Proton pump inhibitors, such as lansoprazole (Prevacid) and omeprazole (Prilosec).
- H2 blockers, such as cimetidine (Tagamet) and famotidine (Pepcid).
- Surgery. Fundoplication surgery is the most common
surgery used to treat GERD. During surgery, the upper curve of the stomach (the
fundus) is wrapped around the esophagus and sewn into place so that the lower
portion of the esophagus passes through a small tunnel of stomach muscle. This
surgery strengthens the lower esophageal sphincter, which stops acid from
backing up into the esophagus as easily. This allows the esophagus to