Epilepsy is a chronic (long-lasting) medical condition marked by recurrent epileptic seizures. An epileptic seizure is an event of altered brain function caused by abnormal or excessive electrical discharges from brain cells. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting up to 1% of the U.S. population.
A seizure occurs when there’s abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Seizures may go virtually unnoticed. Or, in severe cases, they may produce a change or loss of consciousness and involuntary muscle spasms called convulsions. Seizures usually come on suddenly and vary in duration and severity. A seizure may be a one-time event, or you may have seizures repeatedly. Recurrent seizures are called epilepsy, or seizure disorder. Less than one in 10 people who has a seizure develops epilepsy.
Approximately 65% of people newly diagnosed with epilepsy have no obvious cause. Of the remaining 35%, the more common reasons include stroke, congenital abnormalities (conditions we are born with), brain tumors, trauma, and infection.
3. Who treats epilepsy?
A neurologist, a doctor who specializes in the brain and nervous system, is best able to diagnose and treat epilepsy. Some neurologists take advanced training and become epileptologists, specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. Many internists and family practice doctors also treat epilepsy.
4. How is epilepsy diagnosed?
To diagnose epilepsy, doctors try to determine the type of seizure you are having and the cause, since various seizure types respond best to specific treatments. The diagnosis is based on your medical history and a complete physical and neurological exam.
Additional testing may often be required, including an electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG is the only test that can directly detect electrical activity in the brain (seizures are defined by abnormal electrical activity in the brain). During an EEG, electrodes (small metal disks) are attached to specific locations on your head. The electrodes are also attached to a monitor to record the brain's electrical activity.
If you become unconscious during a seizure, others who have often seen you before, during, and after seizures, such as family and close friends, should be present to provide details of your seizures.
5. How is epilepsy treated?
The majority of epileptic seizures are controlled with drug therapy, particularly anticonvulsant medications. The type of treatment prescribed will depend on several factors, including the type of epilepsy, the frequency and severity of the seizures, your age, overall health, and medical history. An accurate diagnosis of the type of epilepsy (not just the type of seizure, since most seizure types occur in different types of epilepsy) is critical to choosing the best treatment.
6. What are the side effects of epilepsy medications?
As is true of all drugs, the medications used to treat epilepsy have side effects. The occurrence of side effects depends on the dose, type of medication, and length of treatment. The side effects worsen with higher doses but tend to be less severe with time as the body adjusts to the medication. Anti-epileptic drugs are usually started at lower doses and increased gradually to make this adjustment easier.