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    Epilepsy Drugs to Treat Seizures


    Lacosamide (VIMPAT)

    • This drug is approved to treat partial-onset seizures in adults with epilepsy.
    • VIMPAT can be used alone or with other drugs.
    • The drug comes as tablets, an oral solution, or injection.
    • Side effects include dizziness, headache, and nausea.

    Lamotrigine (Lamictal)

    • Treats partial, some generalized seizures and mixed seizures.
    • Has few side effects, but rarely people report dizziness, insomnia, or rash.

    Levetiracetam (Keppra)

    • It is combined with other epilepsy drugs to treat partial seizures, primary generalized seizures and myoclonic (shock-like jerks of muscle) seizures.
    • Side effects include tiredness, weakness, and behavioral changes.

    Oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR, Trileptal )

    • Used to treat partial seizures, it is a once-daily medicine used alone or with other medications to control seizures.
    • Common side effects include dizziness, sleepiness, headache, vomiting, double vision , and balance problems.

    Perampanel (Fycompa)

    • The drug is approved to treat partial onset seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in those age 12 and older.
    • The label carries a warning of potential serious events including irritability, aggression, anger, anxiety, paranoia, euphoric mood, agitation, and changes in mental status.


    • Oldest epilepsy medicine still in use. It is used to treat most forms of seizures and is known for its effectiveness and low cost.
    • Side effects can be sleepiness or changes in behavior.

    Phenytoin (Dilantin)

    • Controls partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures; also can be given by vein (intravenously) in the hospital to rapidly control active seizures, although if the drug is being delivered by IV, fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) is usually used.
    • Side effects include dizziness, fatigue, slurred speech, acne, rash, gum thickening, and increased hair (hirsutism). Over the long term, the drug can cause bone thinning.

    Pregabalin ( Lyrica)

    • Used with other epilepsy drugs to treat partial seizures, but is used more often to treat neuropathic pain.
    • Side effects include dizziness, sleepiness (somnolence), dry mouth, peripheral edema, blurred vision, weight gain, and difficulty with concentration/attention.

    Tiagabine (Gabitril)

    • Used with other epilepsy drugs to treat partial seizures with or without generalized seizures
    • Common side effects include dizziness, fatigue, weakness, irritability, anxiety, and confusion.

    Topiramate (Topamax)

    • Used with other drugs to treat partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It is also used with absence seizures.
    • Side effects include sleepiness, dizziness, speech problems, nervousness, memory problems, visions problems, weight loss.

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