Symptoms of seizures vary widely, depending on the part of the brain affected by the electrical misfiring. If a very small part of the brain is affected, you might sense only an odd smell or taste. In other cases, you could have hallucinations or convulsions, or you could lose consciousness.
Generalized tonic-clonic. This type of seizure is sometimes preceded by an aura (awareness of a strange odor, taste, or vision). You might lose consciousness, fall, and experience muscle rigidity (stiffness)...
When a specific cause of the seizure is identified -- such as infection or low blood sugar -- treatment of that underlying condition often prevents seizures from recurring. If the underlying cause is not fully treatable or is unknown, treatment with anti-seizure (anticonvulsant) medications may be recommended.
Medications for Epilepsy
Anticonvulsant drugs can eliminate or reduce recurrent seizures. The choice of medication is based on the specific seizure type and pattern. Often, a single drug is used, but sometimes a combination may be necessary. Anticonvulsant drugs include:
For some drugs, your doctor may test your blood to check that you have the right amount of medication in your blood so that it is reaching your brain. Blood tests can also make sure drugs are not affecting your kidneys or liver. Some people may be able to stop taking medication once their seizures have been under control for at least a year.
Surgery and Other Procedures for Seizures
Doctors may suggest surgery for the few patients whose seizures can't be controlled with medications. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device that electronically stimulates the vagus nerve (which controls activity between the brain and major internal organs) is implanted under the skin in the neck. This reduces seizure activity in some patients with partial seizures.