Epilepsy and Women
More than one million women of child-bearing age in the U.S. have a seizure disorder. Not only do they have to cope with seizures, they must also deal with the impact the disorder can have on their reproductive health. Epilepsy and seizure medications may affect contraception, pregnancy, hormone levels, and the female reproductive cycle.
Epilepsy and Birth Control
Women with epilepsy who are sexually active should consult with their doctors regarding contraception and pregnancy. Many seizure drugs can prevent birth control pills from working effectively, which can lead to an unplanned pregnancy. Other methods of birth control may be more effective in certain cases. Don't wait until it's too late to discuss birth control with your doctor.
In addition, all women of child-bearing age should take a multivitamin containing folic acid daily, to help prevent certain birth defects should pregnancy occur. Women who are taking seizure medications should be especially careful about taking a multivitamin and extra folic acid (check with your doctor about the exact dose), because some epilepsy medications deplete the body of important vitamins, particularly folic acid.
Epilepsy and Pregnancy
Women with seizures can have healthy children, provided they receive good prenatal care. It is very important that women with epilepsy discuss pregnancy with their doctors before getting pregnant.
Many patients with epilepsy take multiple medications in high doses that may lead to unnecessary drug exposure to unborn babies. In some cases, medications may be reduced before pregnancy, particularly if seizures are well-controlled.
If pregnancy occurs unexpectedly, women should not discontinue their seizure medication until they consult with their doctors. This commonly leads to more frequent seizures, which can also harm the baby.
Seizures During Pregnancy
The frequency of seizures usually does not change significantly during pregnancy. However, some women have seizures more frequently, while others experience fewer seizures. Blood levels should be checked often. This precaution is taken because medication blood levels gradually decrease during pregnancy and reach their lowest level around the time of delivery, which may result in breakthrough seizures. All seizures occurring during pregnancy should be reported to your doctor.