Flying grit from off-roading or yard work, chemicals in pools, a sun that sears delicate tissues -- summer is an obstacle course for your precious eyes. You can still have fun, but you may need to take some steps to protect your peepers.
A lot of this is common sense, which, sadly, is not always so common.
The signs of a black eye include bruising and swelling of the eyelid and soft tissue around the injured eye, sometimes accompanied by broken blood vessels along the white of the eye, called a subconjunctival hemorrhage.
The discoloration starts out deep purple or blue, then may turn green or yellow before disappearing, usually in about a week.
Take it from an emergency room doctor. Eyewise, he has seen it all. Here are some top recommendations from several experts.
1. Wear Sun Protection
"A lot of people come to the ER with burned corneas each summer," Richard O'Brien, MD, an emergency physician with the Moses Taylor Hospital in Scranton, Penn., tells WebMD.
"We have a lot of NASCAR up here. You'd be amazed how many people go to that, a concert, or other all-day event without wearing a visor cap and sunglasses. They even lie on their shiny RVs -- that is like being in a tanning booth.
"They are fine at first, then go home, go to sleep, and wake up in an hour in excruciating pain. I have had people come in here crying."
The sun, of course, shoots out rays of different lengths. The most damaging are the ultraviolet rays, which are classified as UVA and UVB.
"Most decent sunglasses," Richard Bensinger, MD, an ophthalmologist in private practice in Seattle, tells WebMD, "protect against UVB. If they also protect against UVA, it should say so on them."
Sunglasses may be one thing you don't want to get at the Dollar Store, O'Brien observes. They should be close to the face or wraparound. Some people like dark tints, but the UV-blocking coating is the same on any color. Polarized lenses may be more comfortable for workers outside because they block glare.
Too much ultraviolet can accelerate the formation of cataracts, Bensinger adds. "There are very solid studies that show this; people who stayed in the sun tended to get cataracts eight to 10 years before a carefully selected group that was mostly in the shade or indoors."
The hat-sunglasses combo should also be worn at the beach, amusement parks, bike rides, boating, or anyplace where there is prolonged sun exposure, O'Brien cautions.
And don't forget the little ones -- they need the same.