The signs of a black eye include bruising and swelling of the eyelid and soft tissue around the injured eye, sometimes accompanied by broken blood vessels along the white of the eye, called a subconjunctival hemorrhage.
The discoloration starts out deep purple or blue, then may turn green or yellow before disappearing, usually in about a week.
For veterans returning from war in Iraq and Afghanistan, vision problems caused by traumatic brain injury are a growing concern. These veterans have better body armor than soldiers in the past, but they are more likely to be severely shaken by a blast from a homemade explosive device.
About 16% of soldiers who fought in Iraq have returned with vision problems, often due to a traumatic brain injury. In comparison, 9% of Vietnam soldiers and 6% of World War II soldiers had eye injuries.
The New Ocular Trauma: Closed-Eye Injuries
Blunt force can hurt the eye without piercing it. These ''closed-eye injuries'' are difficult to diagnose because there's no obvious injury to the outside of the eye. But inside, blunt force can damage the cornea, retina, lens, and optic nerves. Sometimes, vision problems from ocular trauma don't show up for one to three years after the blast. As a result, veterans may not know that they have eye damage until they have an eye exam or start having vision problems after they've left military service.
Symptoms of Ocular Trauma
There are a variety of visual problems that can occur at different time points in your recovery. There can also be a complete loss of sight in one or both eyes, depending on the injury. Some of the most common types of vision problems include the following:
A simple eye chart test cannot always diagnose ocular trauma. Veterans may still be able to see well, although they have other visual symptoms. More thorough vision screenings are needed for veterans with traumatic brain injury. All soldiers at Walter Reed Army Medical Center who have had traumatic brain injury within two years now have screenings for vision loss. The Center's staff found that 64% of these soldiers have vision problems.
Other veteran rehabilitation centers are also screening for low vision in soldiers who have had a traumatic brain injury. (Low vision is sight impairment that eyeglasses, contact lenses, surgery, or medicine can't fix.) Tests revealed that these soldiers had mild to severe vision problems. And 2% of them were legally blind.