A cataract—a clouding of the lens of the eye—blocks the normal passage of light through the eye.
Surgery for cataracts involves removing the natural lens of the eye
that contains the
cataract and either replacing it with an artificial
lens called an intraocular lens implant (IOL) or compensating for its absence
with eyeglasses or contact lenses.
The most common replacement is an IOL. Before having surgery, review
with your doctor the advantages and disadvantages of each type of replacement
lens. A variety of IOL types are available. Your doctor can help you choose
the type that may work best for you.
An IOL is placed inside the eye during surgery. Corrective glasses
may be needed after surgery for reading and close work. But they are not as
thick and heavy as traditional cataract glasses.
Studies are being done to find the age at which children can
benefit from an IOL. If your child needs cataract surgery, talk with
your eye specialist (preferably a pediatric ophthalmologist) about what current
studies are showing about the use of IOLs in children.
For nearsightedness, with or without cataracts
If you have cataracts and you are nearsighted, you may be able to have cataract surgery and get an IOL to help treat both issues. The chance of having retinal detachment after the surgery is higher than if you were not nearsighted, though. Talk to your doctor about all the pros and cons of cataract surgery.
If you don't have cataracts but you are nearsighted, there are two ways that IOLs may be able to help treat the nearsightedness:
- When the surgeon replaces the eye's natural lens with an IOL, it's called "clear lens extraction."
- When the surgeon does not remove the eye's natural lens, the IOL implants are called "phakic intraocular
lenses" or "implantable contact lenses." These IOLs are placed in front of the natural lens, either in front of or behind the iris.
Cataracts that begin in the center of the lens (nuclear cataracts) are the most common cause of
nearsightedness getting worse in adults.