Periodic comprehensive eye exams by an eye doctor are essential to monitor the health of your eyes and diagnose suspected problems. Checking the position of each eye and its movements will reveal crossed eyes or other forms of strabismus. The exam may include these parts:
An eye chart uses letters of decreasing size to determine the sharpness of your vision at a distance.
The retinoscope projects a thin beam of light into the eye. When used with the rotating lens dial (called the phoropter) the eye doctor measures any refractive error like nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism.
A slit-lamp microscope exam of the surface of each eye. The same device is used to inspect the eye's internal structures. This is how changes in the clear cornea and lens are identified.
Pressure inside the eye is measured using one of several devices.
Exams with an ophthalmoscope can reveal abnormalities of the retina, the macula, the optic nerve, and other structure inside the eye.
Dilating eye drops may be given in order for the doctor to complete a full exam. The purpose of dilation is to open the pupil or “window” to allow a much better view of the lens, retina, and optic nerve. Although this can cause some temporary blurriness, it is a very important evaluation. Typically, sunglasses are given at the end of an exam to help protect the eyes from sensitivity after the dilation until the effect wears off.
Each war leaves its own brand of trauma on soldiers.
Amputation was the most common surgery during the American Civil War. World War I brought mustard gas and an epidemic of scarred lungs.
For veterans returning from war in Iraq and Afghanistan, vision problems caused by traumatic brain injury are a growing concern. These veterans have better body armor than soldiers in the past, but they are more likely to be severely shaken by a blast from a homemade explosive device.
About 16% of soldiers...
If routine testing indicates that you have a refractive error, conventional treatment calls for wearing corrective glasses or contact lenses. Over 150 million people in the US wear corrective lenses. In many cases, surgical correction of refractive errors is possible using modern surgical techniques such as LASIK.
Conventional treatment for disorders such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism typically relies on corrective prescription lenses. Disorders such as cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and retinal detachment require advanced medical and surgical treatments. Enormous progress in eye surgery has been made over the past few decades. Many people with eye problems previously felt to be untreatable now enjoy improved eyesight and an improved quality of life. This applies to individuals of every age -- infants to senior citizens!