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First Aid & Emergencies

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Thermal Burns Treatment

Call 911 if:

  • The burn penetrates all layers of the skin.
  • The skin is leathery or charred looking, with white, brown, or black patches.
  • The burn blister is larger than two inches or oozes.
  • The hands, feet, face, or genitals are burned.
  • The person is an infant or a senior.
  • Cover loosely with sterile, nonstick bandage or, for large areas, a sheet or other material that that won’t leave lint in wound.

  • The burn penetrates all layers of the skin.
  • The skin is leathery or charred looking, with white, brown, or black patches.
  • The burn blister is larger than two inches or oozes.
  • The hands, feet, face, or genitals are burned.
  • The person is an infant or a senior.

For All Burns

1. Stop Burning Immediately

  • Put out fire or stop the person's contact with hot liquid, steam, or other material.
  • Help the person "stop, drop, and roll" to smother flames.
  • Remove smoldering material from the person.
  • Remove hot or burned clothing. If clothing sticks to skin, cut or tear around it.

2. Remove Constrictive Clothing Immediately

  • Take off jewelry, belts, and tight clothing. Burns can swell quickly.

Then take the following steps:

For First-Degree Burns (Affecting Top Layer of Skin)

1. Cool Burn

  • Hold burned skin under cool (not cold) running water or immerse in cool water until pain subsides.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.

2. Protect Burn

  • Cover with sterile, non-adhesive bandage or clean cloth.
  • Do not apply butter or ointments, which can cause infection.

3. Treat Pain

4. When to See a Doctor

Seek medical help if:

  • You see signs of infection, like increased pain, redness, swelling, fever, or oozing.
  • The person needs tetanus or booster shot, depending on date of last injection. Tetanus booster should be given every 10 years.
  • Redness and pain last more than a few hours.
  • Pain worsens.

5. Follow Up

For Second-Degree Burns (Affecting Top 2 Layers of Skin)

1. Cool Burn

  • Immerse in cool water for 10 or 15 minutes.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.
  • Don’t apply ice. It can lower body temperature and cause further damage.
  • Don’t break blisters or apply butter or ointments, which can cause infection.

2. Protect Burn

  • Cover loosely with sterile, nonstick bandage and secure in place with gauze or tape.

3. Prevent Shock

Unless the person has a head, neck, or leg injury, or it would cause discomfort:

  • Lay the person flat.
  • Elevate feet about 12 inches.
  • Elevate burn area above heart level, if possible.
  • Cover the person with coat or blanket.

4. See a Doctor

  • The doctor can test burn severity, prescribe antibiotics and pain medications, and administer a tetanus shot, if needed.

First Aid A-Z

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