Skip to content

    Aug. 23, 2000 -- Losing fat was never simple. Unfortunately, it only becomes more complicated as we hear terms like 'HDL,' 'cholesterol,' 'LDL,' 'VLDL,' 'triglycerides,' and so on -- some of them good, some bad, and some ugly. Adding to the confusion, your doctor now gives you not just a cholesterol "number" but also numbers for these other compounds, and often one number is normal while another is high. So, what effect does exercising have on each of these components of fat metabolism?

    A leading expert on physical fitness and its relationship to fat metabolism has summarized the scientific knowledge on this in the current issue of the American College of Sports Medicine's Health & Fitness Journal. According to this review, the following is a guide to the effects of each component on heart disease and whether exercise will be beneficial to the component in question:

    Compound

    Relation to heart disease

    Effect of exercise

    LDL

    Strongly causative

    May reduce

    HDL

    Strong protector

    Increases

    Cholesterol

    Strongly causative

    Little or no change

    Triglycerides

    Somewhat causative

    Reduces

    VLDL

    Somewhat causative

    Reduces

    Chylomicrons

    Causative

    Little or no change

    Cholesterol and triglycerides are essential for health, but could lead to hardening of the arteries if higher than normal, says lead author Larry Durstine, PhD, professor and chair of exercise science at University of South Carolina, in Columbia. "Fortunately, many studies have shown that exercise helps return blood lipids to their normal range," he tells WebMD.

    With aerobic training, triglycerides decrease 10-30%, and HDL increases 2-8 points, Durstine tells WebMD. "Weight training hasn't been shown to improve blood profiles but does help prevent falls and offset osteoporosis. So, if you're at risk for heart disease, consider these guidelines in starting an exercise program," he suggests.

    • Include exercise like walking, running, cycling, or swimming
    • Train moderately for 30 minutes, five days a week
    • Work toward burning 1,000 or more kilocalories a week
    • Supplement your routine with weight or resistance training

    But, how do you get from where you are to where you should be? "Above all else, find a routine that you can stick with," says Paul Cacolice, ATC, CSCS, a clinical athletic trainer in Enfield, Conn. "Then talk with a personal trainer about making steady fitness gains over time."

    • Set short-term goals for the next two weeks, like longer sessions
    • Set long-term goals for the next six months, like burning more calories
    • Work out hard, but remain able to carry on a conversation
    • Increase your routine gradually, by about 3-5% a week

    Heart Rate Calculator

    Ensure you're exercising hard enough to get a good workout, but not strain your heart.

    While you are exercising, you should count between...

    -
    Beats
    PER
    Seconds

    Heart Rate Calculator

    Ensure you're exercising hard enough to get a good workout, but not strain your heart.

    While you are exercising, you should count between...

    -
    Beats
    PER
    Seconds