Memory Testing continued...
The latter survey included the AD8 screening tool, which was completed by the men's spouses. Scores of 2 or greater suggests substantial cognitive impairment.
A total of 513 of the returned surveys included a completed AD8 test. Results showed that 35% of the retirees had a score of 2 or greater, which "we found startling, particularly because the men were relatively young, with an average age of 61 years," Randolph says.
Another 53% of the former NFL players had a score of 0, or no cognitive impairment, on the test; 12% had a score of 1, indicating mild memory loss and other cognitive problems.
Forty-one of the players whose AD8 scores indicated cognitive impairment then agreed to be further evaluated at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Center for the Study of Retired Athletes. As part of a clinical trial, they were compared with 41 healthy NFL retirees of similar age, education, and race, and 81 older patients with confirmed MCI who had not played football.
All were given a test called the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), a tool that Randolph himself developed to evaluate patients' language and visual/spatial skills, attention span, and immediate and delayed memory.
"The profile of cognitive impairment [seen in the retired football players] on RBANS was very similar to that of patients with clinically diagnosed MCI," Randolph reports.
He cited as an example their scores on a question dealing with delayed memory -- the ability to recall something from the past. Higher scores indicate better performance.
The MCI patients had an average score of 75, which put them in about the fifth percentile of normal for their age, he says. Retired NFL players with suspected cognitive impairment had average scores in the mid-80s, which falls into about the 15th percentile of normal. The healthy retirees had scores of about 100, which is normal for their age, he says.
Despite their below average scores on RBANS, the retired NFL players with suspected cognitive impairment "were still highly functioning, with an average IQ of 106," Randolph says.