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We asked exercise physiologist Will Drexler to tackle your most common questions about fitness.

Q: How accurate are the calorie-burning counters on cardio machines?
A: Not very. They tend to overestimate calorie burn by a fair amount — up to 30 percent, depending on the machine. Stationary bikes, treadmills, and machines that allow you to enter your weight tend to be more accurate; ellipticals generally exaggerate results. To determine how many calories you can burn based on your weight for more than 220 physical activities, go to primusweb.com/fitnesspartner. -

Q: Should I eat before or after a workout?
A: After. You want to replace the carbohydrates and glycogen (stored glucose that's used for energy) that were depleted or you'll be more susceptible to injury and burnout. And the sooner you eat, the more likely those nutrients will go to the place where they were expended and are needed most. Research suggests that a snack with a carb-to-protein ratio of four to one is the most beneficial.

Q: Why do I feel sore two days after going to the gym?
A: This is called "delayed-onset muscle soreness." Muscle structure is broken down a little during strength-training, and soreness is a sign that your body is rebuilding. As much as you may want to just sit on the couch, it helps to move: Activity increases blood flow to the area, delivering nutrients that help repair muscle.

Q: Can I tone muscle without lifting weights?
A:
Any exercise that involves pushing or pulling against a resistance — such as yoga, Pilates, push-ups, planks, and using resistance bands — is good for muscle toning and endurance.

Q: If I want to lose weight and tone up, should I lose a few pounds first before I start strength-training?
A: You don't have to, but many people want to see results on the scale right away — it keeps them motivated. If that's you, start with aerobic activity to drop pounds faster, then as you get closer to your goal body weight, focus more on strength-training. At this point you won't see as much change on the scale because you'll be building muscle — and muscle weighs more than fat — but you will be improving your fitness level.

Heart Rate Calculator

Ensure you're exercising hard enough to get a good workout, but not strain your heart.

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Heart Rate Calculator

Ensure you're exercising hard enough to get a good workout, but not strain your heart.

While you are exercising, you should count between...

-
Beats
PER
Seconds