Strains, Sprains, and Other Sports Injuries: 3 Questions
Expert advice from Edward McFarland, MD, on how to cope with these common sports injuries.
If you engage in sports or a favorite workout at the gym, you have probably
twisted an ankle or pulled a muscle at some point.
In many cases, injuries are due to overuse of a part of the body when
participating in a certain sport -- runner's knee or tennis elbow, for example.
Other types of injuries are caused by trauma -- hard contact with something,
perhaps resulting in a broken bone or torn ligament or tendon.
At a recent meeting of the American College of Sports in Medicine in Austin,
Texas, Edward G. McFarland, MD, spoke with WebMD about sprains, strains, tears,
and other types of sports injuries: What they are, how to avoid them, and how
to treat them.
McFarland is the Wayne H. Lewis Professor of Orthopedics and Shoulder
Surgery at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore and a team physician
for the Baltimore Orioles baseball team.
What are the most common types of sports injuries?
We usually divide them into two groups: traumatic injuries and overuse
First, traumatic [injuries]. In the lower extremities, the most common would
be knee ligament injuries and fractures. In the upper extremities it would be
fractures, rotator cuff injuries, and instability of the shoulder.
Overuse in lower extremities would be patellar [knee cap area] tendinitis or
Achilles [heel area] tendinitis. In the upper extremities, it would be
... biceps and rotator cuff [shoulder muscle and tendon] problems.
With either type of injury, any type of musculoskeletal tissue can be
involved: bone, ligament, tendon, muscle, or nerve.
What are the most common causes of these injuries and how can you prevent them?
Traumatic injuries are, of course, very unpredictable. Sometimes they’re due
to poor conditioning, poor surfaces, or poor equipment. Oftentimes, they are
just bad luck.
Overuse injuries are almost always due to increasing the stress on the
tissues too rapidly. So we see them very often in people who are out of shape
and do things they are not used to doing or not conditioned for doing.
The other place we see them is in people who are fairly well-conditioned and
try to bump up their level of fitness or level of expertise too rapidly.
I think that as you get more mature, you realize that it takes less and less
to get your tissues aggravated.
I always tell people when you are starting out, do about one tenth of what
you think you can do and try not to overdo it. We often see people who haven’t
done a sport in months or years and try to go out full-gun or full-bore.
Suddenly they are hurting all over, or get tendinitis, or irritation of their
tendons or ligaments or knees or their joints. The biggest issue is a large
increase in [physical] stress too rapidly.
But still, it is very unpredictable, which is what makes it so