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Expert advice from Edward McFarland, MD, on how to cope with these common sports injuries.

If you engage in sports or a favorite workout at the gym, you have probably twisted an ankle or pulled a muscle at some point.

In many cases, injuries are due to overuse of a part of the body when participating in a certain sport -- runner's knee or tennis elbow, for example. Other types of injuries are caused by trauma -- hard contact with something, perhaps resulting in a broken bone or torn ligament or tendon.

At a recent meeting of the American College of Sports in Medicine in Austin, Texas, Edward G. McFarland, MD, spoke with WebMD about sprains, strains, tears, and other types of sports injuries: What they are, how to avoid them, and how to treat them.

McFarland is the Wayne H. Lewis Professor of Orthopedics and Shoulder Surgery at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore and a team physician for the Baltimore Orioles baseball team.

What are the most common types of sports injuries?

We usually divide them into two groups: traumatic injuries and overuse injuries.

First, traumatic [injuries]. In the lower extremities, the most common would be knee ligament injuries and fractures. In the upper extremities it would be fractures, rotator cuff injuries, and instability of the shoulder.

Overuse in lower extremities would be patellar [knee cap area] tendinitis or Achilles [heel area] tendinitis. In the upper extremities, it would be ... biceps and rotator cuff [shoulder muscle and tendon] problems.

With either type of injury, any type of musculoskeletal tissue can be involved: bone, ligament, tendon, muscle, or nerve.

What are the most common causes of these injuries and how can you prevent them?

Traumatic injuries are, of course, very unpredictable. Sometimes they’re due to poor conditioning, poor surfaces, or poor equipment. Oftentimes, they are just bad luck.

Overuse injuries are almost always due to increasing the stress on the tissues too rapidly. So we see them very often in people who are out of shape and do things they are not used to doing or not conditioned for doing.

The other place we see them is in people who are fairly well-conditioned and try to bump up their level of fitness or level of expertise too rapidly.

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