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    Flavonoids: What Makes Chocolate and Wine Good for You continued...

    "The suggestion is that the same thing would work in humans," says Folts. He says the early studies on tea and chocolate flavonoids are promising, but it's still too early to draw any definitive conclusions from them.

    Researchers say flavonoids may help promote heart health in several ways, such as:

    • Helping to prevent blood clots, which may trigger a heart attack or stroke.
    • Preventing cholesterol from entering and damaging blood vessel walls.
    • Improving the health of arteries, making them expand and contract more readily, helping them carry blood more effectively.
    • Stimulating the production of nitric oxide, which may stall hardening of the arteries.

    Alice H. Lichtenstein, DSc, professor of nutritional science and policy at Tufts University, says although the research is reasonably good in showing that drinking a moderate amount of wine, defined as one or two glasses per day for men and no more than one glass per day for women, is associated with a lower risk of heart disease, it is also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

    "There is still some confusion over alcohol, and I think that's understandable because it has potentially good and bad effects," says Lichtenstein. "One should not start drinking if they don't already, and they have to really weigh the risks and benefits."

    She says it's difficult to make a broad recommendation for drinking wine or other types of alcohol based on its potential health benefits because there are also some people who may be more likely to have substance abuse problems with alcohol.

    The "Good" Fat (Fatty Acids)

    Fat also got a healthy image makeover this year thanks to new research on omega-3 fatty acids and their ability to reduce the risk of heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, lake trout, and herring. In September, the FDA approved a new qualified health claim that allows foods and supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids to advertise the fact that eating the product may reduce the risk of heart disease.

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