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    April 5, 2001 (Washington) -- Since the mid-1990s, the government has been trying to cut down on the number of cases of people getting sick from eating contaminated food. So the federal regulators have been phasing in new rules aimed at promoting good practices, increasing surveillance, and raising more attention to overall safety.

    But according to the CDC's latest report, it is difficult to determine what effect, if any, these efforts have had at all.

    Investigators have estimated that food-borne illnesses affected about 76 million American each year. In these types of incidents, sufferers may not be affected at all or could show symptoms ranging from gastrointestinal problems to even death.

    Comparing 1996 to 2000, the CDC noted Thursday that while it appears that the overall incidence of food borne illness is now on the decline, regional variations and substantial year-to-year fluctuations have made it nearly impossible to identify a national trend.

    The CDC said that the incidence of infections with a germ called E. coli 0157 appeared to increase from 1999 to 2000 in at least five states, but a trend could not be discerned due to yearly variations. E.coli 0157 infectioncan cause stomachcramps and bloody diarrhea and can be fatal.

    Similarly, an apparent increase in Shigella, an organism that causes diarrhea, could be blamed for outbreaks in California and Minnesota -- so health officials can't tell if the national incidence is on the rise or decline, the CDC said.

    According to the CDC report, it is almost impossible to determine how often the most common infections occur, because not all cases are reported to health officials and not all facilities test for all the usual microscopic suspects. And because people also can become infected through other sources like drinking water, the actual source of the germ may never be discovered.

    Despite the CDC's uncertainty, industry representatives maintain that the new regulations have made a difference.

    Because food producers were made a critical part of the process, the regulations have encouraged good manufacturing practices, says Peter Cleary, a spokesman for the Grocery Manufacturers of America, the world's largest association of food, beverage, and consumer product makers. Helping to develop their own solutions, he tells WebMD, has worked better than taking a "one size fit all" approach.

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